Bindusara - Wikipedia
In the serial Chakravartin Ashoka Samrat, when will Chanakya and Dharma reveal the fact that Ashoka is Bindusara's son? Know the complete. This led to a war in which Bindusara's son, Ashoka, defeated his brother and rose principles of the Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise that included advice. His interest in Emperor Asoka perhaps reflected his own belief in universal Emperor Chandragupta, seized the throne of the Nanda Dynasty at Magadha . and injustice in relation to and affecting the administration of the empire. . They are bidden to turn from their (evil) ways that they be not chastised.
These types of ceremonies can be performed by all means, but they bear little fruit. What does bear great fruit, however, is the ceremony of the Dhamma. This involves proper behavior towards servants and employees, respect for teachers, restraint towards living beings, and generosity towards ascetics and Brahmans.
These and other things constitute the ceremony of the Dhamma. Therefore a father, a son, a brother, a master, a friend, a companion, and even a neighbor should say: But the ceremony of the Dhamma is timeless. Even if it does not achieve its purpose in this world, it produces great merit in the next, whereas if it does achieve its purpose in this world, one gets great merit both here and there through the ceremony of the Dhamma. And whatever efforts Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, is making, all of that is only for the welfare of the people in the next world, and that they will have little evil.
And being without merit is evil. This is difficult for either a humble person or a great person to do except with great effort, and by giving up other interests.
In fact, it may be even more difficult for a great person to do. And it consists of this: Therefore a father, a son, a brother, a master, a friend, a companion or a neighbor should say: And if there is cause for criticism, it should be done in a mild way. But it is better to honor other religions for this reason. By so doing, one's own religion benefits, and so do other religions, while doing otherwise harms one's own religion and the religions of others.
Whoever praises his own religion, due to excessive devotion, and condemns others with the thought "Let me glorify my own religion," only harms his own religion.
Ashoka - The Great Emperor | Buddhism Preacher
Therefore contact between religions is good. Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, desires that all should be well-learned in the good doctrines of other religions.
Those who are content with their own religion should be told this: Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does not value gifts and honors as much as he values that there should be growth in the essentials of all religions.
And to this end many are working -- Dhamma Mahamatras, Mahamatras in charge of the women's quarters, officers in charge of outlying areas, and other such officers.
And the fruit of this is that one's own religion grows and the Dhamma is illuminated also. After the Kalingas had been conquered, Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the Dhamma, a love for the Dhamma and for instruction in Dhamma.
Now Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the Kalingas. Indeed, Beloved-of-the-Gods is deeply pained by the killing, dying and deportation that take place when an unconquered country is conquered. But Beloved-of-the-Gods is pained even more by this -- that Brahmans, ascetics, and householders of different religions who live in those countries, and who are respectful to superiors, to mother and father, to elders, and who behave properly and have strong loyalty towards friends, acquaintances, companions, relatives, servants and employees -- that they are injured, killed or separated from their loved ones.
Even those who are not affected by all this suffer when they see friends, acquaintances, companions and relatives affected. These misfortunes befall all as a result of warand this pains Beloved-of-the-Gods.
There is no country, except among the Greeks, where these two groups, Brahmans and ascetics, are not found, and there is no country where people are not devoted to one or another religion. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods thinks that even those who do wrong should be forgiven where forgiveness is possible. Even the forest people, who live in Beloved-of-the-Gods' domain, are entreated and reasoned with to act properly. They are told that despite his remorse Beloved-of-the-Gods has the power to punish them if necessary, so that they should be ashamed of their wrong and not be killed.
Truly, Beloved-of-the-Gods desires non-injury, restraint and impartiality to all beings, even where wrong has been done. Now it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest. Even where Beloved-of-the-Gods' envoys have not been, these people too, having heard of the practice of Dhamma and the ordinances and instructions in Dhamma given by Beloved-of-the-Gods, are following it and will continue to do so.
This conquest has been won everywhere, and it gives great joy -- the joy which only conquest by Dhamma can give. But even this joy is of little consequence.
Beloved-of-the-Gods considers the great fruit to be experienced in the next world to be more important. I have had this Dhamma edict written so that my sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests, or that if military conquests are made, that they be done with forbearance and light punishment, or better still, that they consider making conquest by Dhamma only, for that bears fruit in this world and the next.
May all their intense devotion be given to this which has a result in this world and the next. And also there are some subjects here that have been spoken of again and again because of their sweetness, and so that the people may act in accordance with them.
If some things written are incomplete, this is because of the locality, or in consideration of the object, or due to the fault of the scribe.
And I consider instructing you to be the best way of accomplishing this. I have placed you over many thousands of people that you may win the people's affection. All men are my children. What I desire for my own children, and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next, that I desire for all men.
You do not understand to what extent I desire this, and if some of you do understand, you do not understand the full extent of my desire. You must attend to this matter. While being completely law-abiding, some people are imprisoned, treated harshly and even killed without cause so that many people suffer. Therefore your aim should be to act with impartiality.
It is because of these things -- envy, anger, cruelty, hate, indifference, laziness or tiredness -- that such a thing does not happen.
Therefore your aim should be: Those who are bored with the administration of justice will not be promoted; those who are not will move upwards and be promoted. Whoever among you understands this should say to his colleagues: Such and such are Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions. Failure in duty on your part will not please me. But done properly, it will win you heaven and you will be discharging your debts to me. This edict is to be listened to on Tisa day, between Tisa days, and on other suitable occasions, it should be listened to even by a single person.
Acting thus, you will be doing your duty. This edict has been written for the following purpose: To achieve this, I will send out Mahamatras every five years who are not harsh or cruel, but who are merciful and who can ascertain if the judicial officers have understood my purpose and are acting according to my instructions.
Similarly, from Ujjayini, the prince will send similar persons with the same purpose without allowing three years to elapse.
Ashoka - Preacher of Buddhism
Likewise from Takhasila also. When these Mahamatras go on tours of inspection each year, then without neglecting their normal duties, they will ascertain if judicial officers are acting according to the king's instructions. I wish to see that everything I consider to be proper is carried out in the right way. Furthermore, they should understand that the king will forgive those who can be forgiven, and that he wishes to encourage them to practice Dhamma so that they may attain happiness in this world and the next.
I am telling you this so that I may discharge the debts I owe, and that in instructing you, that you may know that my vow and my promise will not be broken. Therefore acting in this way, you should perform your duties and assure them the people beyond the borders that: He feels towards us as he feels towards himself.
We are to him like his own children. You are able indeed to inspire them with confidence and to secure their welfare and happiness in this world and the next, and by acting thus, you will attain heaven as well as discharge the debts you owe to me. And so that the Mahamatras can devote themselves at all times to inspiring the border areas with confidence and encouraging them to practice Dhamma, this edict has been written here. This edict is to be listened to every four months on Tisa day, between Tisa days, and on other suitable occasions, it should be listened to even by a single person.
Now the people in India who have not associated with the gods do so. This is the result of zeal and it is not just the great who can do this. Even the humble, if they are zealous, can attain heaven. And this proclamation has been made with this aim. Let both humble and great be zealous, let even those on the borders know and let zeal last long. Then this zeal will increase, it will greatly increase, it will increase up to one-and-a-half times.
This message has been proclaimed two hundred and fifty-six times by the king while on tour. In these ways, the Dhamma should be promoted. Likewise, a teacher should be honored by his pupil and proper manners should be shown towards relations. This is an ancient rule that conduces to long life. Thus should one act.
Written by the scribe Chapala. Whatever, reverend sirs, has been spoken by Lord Buddha, all that is well-spoken. These Dhamma texts -- Extracts from the Discipline, the Noble Way of Life, the Fears to Come, the Poem on the Silent Sage, the Discourse on the Pure Life, Upatisa's Questions, and the Advice to Rahula which was spoken by the Buddha concerning false speech -- these Dhamma texts, reverend sirs, I desire that all the monks and nuns may constantly listen to and remember. I have had this written that you may know my intentions.
Happiness in this world and the next is difficult to obtain without much love for the Dhamma, much self-examination, much respect, much fear of eviland much enthusiasm. But through my instruction this regard for Dhamma and love of Dhamma has grown day by day, and will continue to grow. And my officers of high, low and middle rank are practicing and conforming to Dhamma, and are capable of inspiring others to do the same.
Mahamatras in border areas are doing the same. And these are my instructions: I have given the gift of sight in various ways.
And many other good deeds have been done by me. This Dhamma edict has been written that people might follow it and it might endure for a long time. And the one who follows it properly will do something good. People see only their good deeds saying, "I have done this good deed. Let me not ruin myself with these things.
This Dhamma edict was written twenty-six years after my coronation. My Rajjukas are working among the people, among many hundreds of thousands of people. The hearing of petitions and the administration of justice has been left to them so that they can do their duties confidently and fearlessly and so that they can work for the welfare, happiness and benefit of the people in the country.
But they should remember what causes happiness and sorrow, and being themselves devoted to Dhamma, they should encourage the people in the country to do the samethat they may attain happiness in this world and the next. These Rajjukas are eager to serve me. They also obey other officers who know my desires, who instruct the Rajjukas so that they can please me. Just as a person feels confident having entrusted his child to an expert nurse thinking: The hearing of petitions and the administration of justice have been left to the Rajjukas so that they can do their duties unperturbed, fearlessly and confidently.
It is my desire that there should be uniformity in law and uniformity in sentencing. I even go this far, to grant a three-day stay for those in prison who have been tried and sentenced to death. During this time their relatives can make appeals to have the prisoners' lives spared.
If there is none to appeal on their behalf, the prisoners can give gifts in order to make merit for the next world, or observe fasts. Indeed, it is my wish that in this way, even if a prisoner's time is limited, he can prepare for the next world, and that people's Dhamma practice, self-control and generosity may grow.
Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures.
One animal is not to be fed to another. On the three Caturmasis, the three days of Tisa and during the fourteenth and fifteenth of the Uposatha, fish are protected and not to be sold. During these days animals are not to be killed in the elephant reserves or the fish reserves either.
On the eighth of every fortnight, on the fourteenth and fifteenth, on Tisa, Punarvasu, the three Caturmasis and other auspicious days, bulls are not to be castrated, billy goats, rams, boars and other animals that are usually castrated are not to be. On Tisa, Punarvasu, Caturmasis and the fortnight of Caturmasis, horses and bullocks are not be branded.
In the twenty-six years since my coronation prisoners have been given amnesty on twenty-five occasions. Twelve years after my coronation I started to have Dhamma edicts written for the welfare and happiness of the people, and so that not transgressing them they might grow in the Dhamma.
I do the same for all groups. I have honored all religions with various honors. But I consider it best to meet with people personally. In the past kings desired that the people might grow through the promotion of the Dhamma. But despite this, people did not grow through the promotion of the Dhamma. Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, said concerning this: Now how can the people be encouraged to follow it?
How can the people be encouraged to grow through the promotion of the Dhamma? How can I elevate them by promoting the Dhamma? When people hear these, they will follow them, elevate themselves and grow considerably through the promotion of the Dhamma. The Rajjukas who work among hundreds of thousands of people have likewise been ordered: Along roads I have had banyan trees planted so that they can give shade to animals and men, and I have had mango groves planted.
But these are but minor achievements. Such things to make the people happy have been done by former kings.
I have done these things for this purpose, that the people might practice the Dhamma. Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, speaks thus: My Dhamma Mahamatras too are occupied with various good works among the ascetics and householders of all religions.
I have ordered that they should be occupied with the affairs of the Sangha. I have also ordered that they should be occupied with the affairs of the Brahmans and the Ajivikas. I have ordered that they be occupied with the Niganthas. And my Dhamma Mahamatras likewise are occupied with these and other religions. These and other principal officers are occupied with the distribution of gifts, mine as well as those of the queens. In my women's quarters, they organize various charitable activities here and in the provinces.
I have also ordered my sons and the sons of other queens to distribute gifts so that noble deeds of Dhamma and the practice of Dhamma may be promoted. And noble deeds of Dhamma and the practice of Dhamma consist of having kindness, generosity, truthfulness, purity, gentleness and goodness increase among the people.
Whatever good deeds have been done by me, those the people accept and those they follow. Therefore they have progressed and will continue to progress by being respectful to mother and father, respectful to elders, by courtesy to the aged and proper behavior towards Brahmans and ascetics, towards the poor and distressed, and even towards servants and employees. This progress among the people through Dhamma has been done by two means, by Dhamma regulations and by persuasion.
Of these, Dhamma regulation is of little effect, while persuasion has much more effect. The Dhamma regulations I have given are that various animals must be protected. And I have given many other Dhamma regulations also. But it is by persuasion that progress among the people through Dhamma has had a greater effect in respect of harmlessness to living beings and non-killing of living beings. Concerning this, Beloved-of-the-Gods says: Wherever there are stone pillars or stone slabs, there this Dhamma edict is to be engraved so that it may long endure.
It has been engraved so that it may endure as long as my sons and great-grandsons live and as long as the sun and the moon shine, and so that people may practice it as instructed. For by practicing it happiness will be attained in this world and the next. This Dhamma edict has been written by me twenty-seven years after my coronation. Whoever splits the Sangha which is now united, is not to be admitted into the Sangha. Whoever, whether monk or nun, splits the Sangha is to be made to wear white clothes and to reside somewhere other than in a monastery.
Girnar version issued in B. These fourteen edicts, with minor differences, are found in five different places throughout India. In two other places, they are found minus numbers 11, 12 and Girnar version, issued in B. The Cholas and Pandyas were south Indian peoples living outside Asoka's empire. Information about his life and time are also gathered from various Buddhist sources and Indian traditions.
There are, of course, many legends and stories about him in Indian literature. The substance of his life, in any case, has been ascertained from reliable sources and accepted as historically established. That he was himself powerful is known from the Greek sources in which Bindusara was described as Amitrochates.
Taranatha, the famous Tibetan historian of a later time, wrote in his history of Buddhism that Chanakya or Kautilya, who was the chief minister of Chandragupta, also continued to work in the same capacity under Bindusara.
The exact conquests of Bindusara are not clear since his father had conquered vast territories in the west and the east, and in the north and the south. Might be, Amitraghata destroyed some rebellious nobles or small rulers within the empire to strengthen his power and confirm his supremacy.
KING ASHOKA: His Edicts and His Times
He also maintained good relation with contemporary Greek rulers outside India. It is known from the Greek accounts that Bindusara requested the Syrian King Antiochus I Soter, who was the son of Seleukos Nikator, to buy and send to him sweet wine, dried figs and a learned philosopher.
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And, the Syrian king wrote back: He, however, sent an ambassador named Daimachus to the court of Bindusara. According to traditions, Bindusara had 16 wives, and as many as sons. The name of his eldest son is said to have been Sumana or Susima. His second son was Asoka, and the name of the youngest son was Tishya. Another tradition mentions her name as Dharma. The Year of birth of Asoka was B. Legends lead us to understand that Asoka was the most intelligent among may sons of his father.
When Asoka was 18 years old, Bindusara appointed him as his Viceroy of the province of Avanti which had its capital at Ujjayini. This took place in the year B. There at Ujjayini, Asoka married a lady of the famous Sakya clan to which Buddha belonged. Her name was Vidisa Mahadevi Sakya Kumari. Apparently her birth place was Vidisa modern Bhilsa.
When Asoka was 20, Mahadevi gave birth to a son who was named Mahendra. Two years later, in B.
In future, both Mahendra and Sanghamitra played a great role in the spread of Buddhism when their royal father sent them to preach that religion outside India. A revolt of the people of Taxila broke out at that time for the misdeeds of the wicked officers which Susima failed to suppress.
Thereupon, the Emperor sent Asoka to Taxila to suppress it which he did. Asoka thus served as the viceroy of Taxila after serving as the viceroy in Ujjayini. There is also reference to a second rebellion in Taxila which Asoka faced and suppressed.