Relationship between Educational Society and Nature - Education The two types of technology accumulation are quantity and quality accumulations. One of . The Relationship Between School and Society: Part. I - Functionalist Perspective. Roger T. Wilson. Grand Valley State University, [email protected] Follow this. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationship – association between two or more people; this association may be based on limerence, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. By this definition, a society can be viewed as a large group, though.
Society does not exist independently without individual. The individual lives and acts within society but society is nothing, in spite of the combination of individuals for cooperative effort.
Human life and society almost go together. Man is biologically and psychologically equipped to live in groups, in society. Society has become an essential condition for human life to arise and to continue. The relationship between individual and society is ultimately one of the profound of all the problems of social philosophy. It is more philosophical rather than sociological because it involves the question of values. Man depends on society.
It is in the society that an individual is surrounded and encompassed by culture, as a societal force. It is in the society again that he has to conform to the norms, occupy statuses and become members of groups.
The question of the relationship between the individual and the society is the starting point of many discussions. It is closely connected with the question of the relationship of man and society. The re- lation between the two depends upon one fact that the individual and the society are mutually de- pendent, one grows with the help of the other.
The aim of this paper is to show the questions: Society, Social Life, Individual 1. Introduction Man is a social animal. He has a natural urge to live an associated life with others. Man needs society for his existence or survival. The human child depends on his parents and others for its survival and growth. The inherent capacities of the child can develop only in society. The ultimate goal of society is to promote good and happy life for its individuals. It creates conditions and opportunities for the all round development of individual personality.
Society ensures harmony and cooperation among individuals in spite of their occasional conflicts and tensions. If society helps the individuals in numerous ways, great men also contribute to society by their wisdom and experience.
Thus, society and individuals are bound by an intimate and harmonious bond and the conflicts between the two are apparent and momentary. In a well-ordered society, there would be lasting harmony between the two. Society liberates and limits the activities of men and it is a necessary condition of every human being and need to fulfillment of life.
Society is a system of usages and procedures of authority and mutual aid many divisions of controls of human behavior and of liberties. This changing system, we call society and it is always changing .
Society not confined to man . It should be clear that society is not limited to human beings. There are many degrees of animal societies, likely the ants, the bee, the hornet, are known to most school children. It has been contended that wherever there is life there is society, because life means heredity and, so far as we know, can arise only out of and in the presence of other life.
All higher animals at least have a very definite society, arising out of the requirements their nature and the conditions involved in the perpetuation of their species .
In society each member seeks something and gives something. A society can also consist of likeminded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, large society moreover; a society may be illustrated as an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals.
Society is universal and pervasive and has no defined boundary or assignable limits. A society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behavior which mark them off from others who do not enter into those relations or who differ from them in behavior. In this way we can conclude that, society is the whole complex of social behavior and the network of social relationship .
Society exists wherever there are good or bad, proper or improper relationships between human beings. These social relationships are not evident, they do not have any concrete from, and hence society is abstract. Society is not a group of people; it means in essence a state or condition, a relationship and is therefore necessarily an abstraction.
Society is organization of relationship. It is the total complex of human relationships. It includes whole range of human relations. Now we can say that society is the union itself, the organization, the sum of formal relations in which associating individuals are bound together.
Societies consist in mutual interaction and inter relation of individuals and of the structure formed by their relations. Social Life As a human being man cannot live without association. Because individuals cannot be understood apart from their relations with one another; the relations cannot be understood apart from the units or terms of the relationship.
A man of society may be aided by the understanding of say, neurons and synapses, but his quest remains the analysis of social relationships .
The role of social life is clarified when we consider the process by which they develop in the life of the individual. Social life is the combination of various components such as activities, people and places.
While all of these components are required to define a social life, the nature of each component is different for every person and can change for each person, as affected by a variety of external influences. In fact, the complex social life of our day his actions indeed, even his thoughts and feelings are influenced in large measure by a social life which surrounds him like an atmosphere .
It is true that, human achievement is marked by his ability to do, so to a more remarkable degree than any other animal. Everywhere there is a social life setting limitations and pre- dominatingly influencing individual action. Because they work together, combine and organize for specific purposes, so that no man lives to himself.
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This unity of effort is to make society . There are different kinds of social life and these are depends on various factors. These types of factors of social life are normal and for normal people. Nevertheless, social life depends on different things such as a The political life; b The economic life; c Voluntary associations; d Educational associations; e Methods of communication and; f The family .
Man Is a Social Animal Though accurate information about the exact origin of society is not known still it is an accepted fact that man has been living in society since time immemorial. He cannot live without society, if he does so; he is either beast or God.
Man has to live in society for his existence and welfare. In almost all aspect of his life he feels the need of society. Biologically and psychologically he compelled to live in society. The essence of the fact is that man has always belonged to a society of some sort, without which man cannot exist at all. Society fulfills all his needs and provides security. Every human took birth, grows, live and die in society. Hence there exists a great deal of close relationships between man and society.
Both are closely inter-related, interconnected and inter-dependent. Relationship between the two is bilateral in nature. But this close relationship between man and society raises one of the most important questions i. No doubt Aristotle said so long ago.
However, man is a social animal mainly because of the following three reasons: Sociality or sociability is his natural instinct. All his human qualities such as: All this developed through interaction with others. His nature compels him to live with his fellow beings. The first case was of Kasper Hauser who from his childhood until his seventeenth year was brought up in woods of Nuremberg.
In his case it was found that at the age of seventeen he could hardly walk, had the mind of an infant and mutter only a few meaningless phrases.
In spite of his subsequent education he could never make himself a normal man. The second case was of two Hindu children who in were discovered in a wolf den. One of the children died soon after discovery. The other could walk only on all four, possessed no language except wolf like growls. She was shy of human being and afraid of them. It was only after careful and sympathetic training that she could learn some social habits. The third case was of Anna, an illegitimate American child who had been placed in a room at age of six months and discovered five years later.
On discovery it was found that she could not walk or speech and was indifferent to people around her. All the above cases prove that man is social by nature.
Human nature develops in man only when he lives in society, only when he shares with his fellow begins a common life. He knows himself and his fellow beings within the framework of society.
Indeed, man is social by nature. The social nature is not super-imposed on him or added to him rather it is inborn. It is said that needs and necessities makes man social.
Man has many needs and necessities. Out of these different needs social, mental and physical needs are very important and needs fulfillment. All his needs and necessities compel him to live in society. Many of his needs and necessities will remain unfulfilled without the co-operation of his fellow beings. His psychological safety, social recognition, loves and self-actualization needs only fulfilled only within the course of living in society. He is totally dependent for his survival upon the existence of society.
Human baby is brought up under the care of his parents and family members. He would not survive even a day without the support of society. All his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, health and education are fulfilled only within the framework of society. He also needs society for his social and mental developments. His need for self-preservation compels him to live in society. Individual also satisfy his sex needs in a socially accepted way in a society.
To fulfill his security concern at the old age individual lives in society. Similarly helplessness at the time of birth compels him to live in society. A nutrition, shelter, warmth and affection need compels him to live in society. Thus for the satisfaction of human wants man lives in society. Hence it is also true that not only for nature but also for the fulfillment of his needs and necessities man lives in society. Society not only fulfils his physical needs and determines his social nature but also determines his personality and guides the course of development of human mind.
Low income families concentrate in the inner city, live in old and decaying houses. Families with similar level of income, and similar vocation live in neighborhood.
This sort of inequality is found everywhere in the West. The residential segregation is a factor that produces class structures. Neighborhood has its impact on the school, and on the peer group. The attitude of the teacher has much to do with education of the children.
The very real measurable differences between middle class and lower class children in tests, as well as the differences between white and Negro children, are to be accounted for, not by innate differences in ability, but by differences of cultural exposure and bearing opportunities. The children in rural areas studying in poorly equipped schools have to compete with the children in urban areas where there are well-equipped schools and more informative environment for getting admission to the schools for higher bearing on professional colleges.
In Indian situation educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible. They are given inferior position in the family and their education is neglected. Educational inequality is due to the system itself and also on account of conditions prevailing in society. It is multi-sided affair and is continuing both in developed and developing societies. In many societies it finds expression in the form of public schools. Some of the societies including our own, run public schools which provide much better education than the type of education provided by State run and controlled educational institutions.
The education in the former institutions being much costly as compared with the latter and admission obviously open to only few privileged. This creates educational inequality in its own way. It is really strange that education aimed at social transformation reflects the structured inequalities in our social system. Educational institutions are in a sense closed systems since opportunities that elite has for excellent educational system is not available for the unfortunate masses.
Obviously this system breeds inequality of opportunities. In many cities there is a definite status hierarchy in primary education and to a large extend, the choice of a primary school determines career opportunities.
Top priority is given to English medium schools sponsored by missionaries since they offer the best education.
The Relationship between Education and Society (7040 Words)
Next in the hierarchy are non-English medium schools run by religious organisations and charitable trusts. At the bottom of the hierarchy are the schools run by the Government. Naturally the choice of English medium schools is the forerunner for lucrative and prestigious careers for a particular segment of society. We have at present a stratified society and a stratified pattern of schooling and they compete each other.
Dual system of education has to be done away with through legislation and thereby evolve a common pattern of schooling to build a strong and unified democratic system in India. Educational privileges must reach down to the poor and particularly it should benefit members of the Scheduled Castes. Rapid expansion of education among women is achieved although they are still at a disadvantage compared to men. To some extent education has proved to be a source of social mobility for the depressed groups.
Education is a double-edged instrument which can eliminate the effects of socio-economic inequalities but it can also introduce a new kind of inequality. Education can influence the process of social change among the weaker sections of society. Persistent and planned efforts by the Government and voluntary agencies will go a long way toward elimination of educational inequalities.
Education as Medium of Cultural Reproduction, Indoctrination: The enduring function of education is the cultural reproduction. It has been recognised to be its main role. It is by education that the newborn is initiated in the social ways. It transmits culture to him. At the early stages the aim is to introduce the child to the normative order of his group. In the traditional society kinship group worked for the child to this end.
In complex modern industrial society of the West, this work is undertaken by specialized agencies such as school. In traditional society, cultural reproduction may take place by oral teaching of heritage and culture; history and legend, and in a practical way by participating in the celebration of festivals.
One may at a successive stage be introduced to culture through books. Yet one may not be in a position to appreciate it. It is only after one has been initiated and motivated that one gets cultivated in the cultural ways.
As indicated above it is a lifelong educational process.
The movies, radio, record industry, and the television are strong instruments to impart education. Their appeal is direct.
But these are not bound to any normative standard. Their basic standard is the marketability. The cultivated morality is challenged; established values are disregarded; mockery is made of humility and decency. With the disregarding of the traditional values, the growing children find themselves like the waves in the boundless sea, and the older feel to have been left high and dry.
It throws into critical relief the whole issue of whether the culture is to be transmitted effectively within the frame work of recognized institutions or whether a disparate set of unlinked and unregulated structures and processes are to carry out competitive even contradictory cultural transmission, and whatever unanticipated consequences.
It is becoming a specialized process. Education is a process of indoctrination. It has been so and it shall remain so. A child is trained in the accepted values to fit in the social milieu.
The training of child has been such down the ages. Education and the class room have been used for the perpetuation of the values, beliefs and faith in East and West alike. Pulpit throughout the Christiandom, has been the great instrument of indoctrination. Ecclesiastical order, which for long controlled the education, had generally been fanatic.
They had vested interest in perpetuating fanaticism. The French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, held that school has always been used as an ideological apparatus. He said that the real peril was the growing power of religious orders of monks and nuns and from the character of the teaching given by them in the religious schools they were conducting.
They were doing their best to make the children hostile to the Republic. InCombos, the successor of Waldeck Rousseau observed. But the role of education in India was regarded humanist. In ancient Indian schools, emphasis was laid on pure values. It is worth quoting. Education and Social Change: Education is considered the most powerful instrument of social change. It is through education that the society can bring desirable changes and modernise itself. Various studies have revealed the role of education in bringing about social changes.
The relation between education and changes in social structure has been examined in rural contexts. Holmberg and Dobyns jointly as well as separately reported the Vicos action research project.
The Relationship between Education and Society ( Words)
The project was a study of the role of enlightenment in social development. The findings of this project were that education became enmeshed in wider social changes as knowledge became the means to status and effective participation. It was also found that the most modernised citizens in the community were the youngsters, who had attended school. In another study by Daniel Lerner, it was found that the key to modernisation lies in the participant society, i.
The studies of Philip Foster in Ghana and Edward Shils in India have also revealed the role of education in social change. According to Foster it was formal Western Schooling in Ghana that created a cultural environment in which innovations could take place.
Shils making a study of the intellectuals in India came to conclusion that if there is to be any successful bridging in the gap between tradition and modern societies, it is the Western educated intellectual who must perform the task. Coleman, Foster, Lipset and many others have shown that education plays a very vital role in political change.
It is held that political development is largely dependent on education. It provides the skills required by modern political bureaucracies, in many emergent nations it has provided a common language, it helps to recruit elite and provides a central force in movements for independence. It may be said that social change may be brought about by political situation, economic development, technological development etc.
By whatever mans the change may be brought about; education always plays an import role in its propagation. The political situation may lead to democratic or totalitarian form of Government. The changes in keeping with the form of the government in the society can only be brought about through education.
Even the acceptance of the form of Government by the majority will be dependent on how it is being educated. The economic growth leads to social change.
It is however, education which leads to economic growth. The development in science and technology are also dependent on education.
It is an important means of attaining economic standard of society. It is essential for the economy. Change in the educational system result in social and economic changes, greater social mobility and more skilled and well-trained manpower for technologically based industries.
Education has been playing in important role in getting occupations which are key determinants of general social status. Therefore, the schools are agent in realisation of the desire for upward mobility.
The schools are instrumental in transforming the occupational structure as well as class structure. Education increases political awareness and political participation of the people. This brings about wider political changes with the increasingly organised participation of the people in national politics. In modern societies educational organisations act as innovators.
These organisations disseminate new knowledge and ideas and promote the processes of social change. According to Alex Inkeles, different levels of education have different levels of effects. In the developing countries primary education is enabling the people to do things they would never have been able to do before.
Basic literacy brings a society into world. Higher education is not only an aid for individual development, but also for the all-round development of the society.
In China, India, Japan, America and many other countries students agitation have resulted in vast changes. In some cases, the students movements are found to discredit, transform or topple governments.
Modern Education changes our attitude and values. It affects our customs, traditions, beliefs and manners. It removes our superstitious beliefs and irrational fear about the supernatural things.
Now education aims at imparting knowledge about science, technology and other secular knowledge. It has been universally acknowledged that through the promotion of education modern values in social, economic, political and cultural fields can be inculcated. Education has contributed to the improvement in the status of women. So far as the importance of modern education is concerned, according Inkeles, it helps them in moving away from traditionalism to modernity.
It has helped them to seek employment and to come out of the family. To conclude, education is the driving force behind the phenomenon of social change. The role of education as a factor or instrument of social change and development is universally recognised today. Education can initiate and accelerate the process of change by changing the attitude and values of man.
It can change man and his style of living and hence can change the society. But education follows social changes. Changes in education take place due to the impact of social changes. Changes in content and methods of education become a necessity for education to be relevant and effective.
When changes occur in needs of the society. Technology and values of society, education also undergoes changes. Society has various needs and these need are subject to change.
The changing needs of the society bring changes in the educational system. It means that educational changes occur because of social needs and aspirations. Universal education, adult education, vocational and scientific education are the various forms and varieties of education which have been brought about by the needs of modern Indian society.
Many changes occur in education because of cultural changes. To conclude, education and social change are very intimately related. They influence each other mutually. Modernisation denotes total transformation of traditional or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organisation that characterise the advanced economically prosperous and relatively politically stable nations of the West.
Modernisation is defined as a conscious set of plans and policies pursued by the leaders or elites of developing countries for changing their societies in the direction of modern developed societies.
Modernisation is the process of transforming the old traditional societies and nations to modernity in the fields of economic, technological, industrial and social advancement. It is to bring a less advanced nation at par with the advanced country. It is the result of the growing recognition of the need for global harmonisation in the larger interests of humanity.
The process modernisation is viewed as one time historical process which was started by the Industrial Revolution in England and the political Revolution in France.
Modernisation first occurred in the West through the twin process of commercialization and industrialisation. Early in the twentieth century Japan, the first Asian country, joined the race for industrialisation. The process is to be viewed as an all-in-all process but not a compartmentalised one. Hence, technical, economic, social, industrial and political orders are to be changed radically. Modernisation takes place in different spheres — political, economic, social and educational.
Industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation, rapid growth of transport and communication, educational revolutions etc. Modernisation involves not only changes at structural level but also fundamental changes at the personal level, a change in modes of thinking, beliefs, opinion, attitudes and action.
Several interacting transformations are involved in the process of modernisation. Education is a great force in modernisation. It plays a crucial role in various spheres of modernisation. Education has been recognised as the most important factor connected with rise and growth of modernisation process of a society irrespective of cultural milieu in which it finds itself. It has been universally acknowledged that through the promotion of education, modern values in social economic, political and cultural fields can be inculcated.
Rationality and scientific temper being the preponderant characteristics of modernisation can be acquired through constant learning. Emphasis has been given on education as an instrument for social reconstruction and modernisation. It is particularly the Western education that enabled many to develop and inculcate the sense of modern outlook. Such an evidence was visible enough when India was under British rule. It was educated population who took the leadership and contributed in bringing many policies and programmes that were sought after before the British.
They inculcated the values of patriotism, nativism, humanitarianism only through education and these ideas were employed as tools against the British. These goals are to be achieved through education. Education prepares the mentality of the people to accept changes. It creates conducive environment for modernisation. By promoting democratic values and progressive attitudes in the people, education makes them capable to participate and strengthen the process of modernisation.
It teaches them to fight against social evils, blind beliefs and superstitions. Education is not only aid for individual development, but also for the all-round development of society and the country. It helps for the development of the qualities of an individual such as mental and emotional makeup as well as his temperament and character. For the individual it provides rational and scientific thinking, reasoning, skills and capabilities to adjust to new situations. Modern education helps people in moving away from traditionalism to modernity.
Education is considered the most powerful instrument of modernisation. It is through education that the society can bring desirable change and modernise itself.
Learner says that the key to modernisation lies in the participant society; that is one in which people go through school, read newspapers, are in the wage and market economy, participate politically through elections and change opinions on matters of public business. The importance of education as an instrument of modernisation needs no special reiteration.
Similarly, none can deny the fact that modernisation has its significance to education. There is a close relationship between education and modernisation. Modernisation takes place in educational sphere for the effectiveness of education in a society.
This involves change in content and methods of education. Modern society is characterised by very rapid and extensive changes.