The Friendship quotient
work done on this sheet of scrap graph paper will not be scored. When you . 12 When 16x3 - 12x2 + 4x is divided by 4x, the quotient is. (1) 12x2 - 8x . 19 Jonathan drove to the airport to pick up his friend. A rainstorm .. 39 Doug has four baseball caps: one tan, one blue, one red, and one green. He also. They are able to classify things and identify relationships (for example they can organize their items and can spend hours organizing their dolls, rocks, or baseball cards. Children may be given some type of group—administered intelligence test Scores are given as an intelligence quotient (IQ). Friendships are vital. In this article, we report a new self-report questionnaire, the Friendship Questionnaire (FQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. A high score on the FQ is.
In children and adolescents, strength training can increase muscle strength, power, and endurance. Multiple types of resistance training modalities have proven effective and safe Bernhardt et al. These adaptations are due to muscle fiber hypertrophy and neural adaptations, with muscle hypertrophy playing a more important role in adolescents, especially in males. Prior to puberty, before the increase in anabolic sex steroid concentrations, neural adaptations explain much of the improvement in muscle function with exercise in both boys and girls.
Skeleton The skeleton is the permanent supportive framework of the body. It provides protection for vital organs and is the main mineral reservoir. Bone tissue constitutes most of the skeleton, accounting for percent of body weight across the life span Trotter and Peterson, ; Trotter and Hixon, Skeletal strength, which dictates fracture risk, is determined by both the material and structural properties of bone, both of which are dependent on mineral accrual.
The relative mineral content of bone does not differ much among infants, children, adolescents, and adults, making up percent of the dry, fat-free weight of the skeleton Malina, As a fraction of weight, bone mineral the ash weight of bone represents about 2 percent of body weight in infants and about percent of body weight in adults Malina, Bone mineral content increases fairly linearly with age, with no sex difference during childhood.
Girls have, on average, a slightly greater bone mineral content than boys in early adolescence, reflecting their earlier adolescent growth spurt.
The increase in total body bone mineral is explained by both increases in skeletal length and width and a small increase in bone mineral density Malina et al. Many studies have shown a positive effect of physical activity on intermediate markers of bone health, such as bone mineral content and density. Active children and adolescents have greater bone mineral content and density than their less active peers, even after controlling for differences in height and muscle mass Wang et al.
Exercise interventions support the findings from observational studies showing beneficial effects on bone mineral content and density in exercise participants versus controls Petit et al. The relationship between greater bone mineral density and bone strength is unclear, as bone strength cannot be measured directly in humans. Thus, whether the effects of physical activity on bone mineral density translate into similar benefits for fracture risk is uncertain Karlsson, Animal studies have shown that loading causes small changes in bone mineral content and bone mineral density that result in large increases in bone strength, supporting the notion that physical activity probably affects the skeleton in a way that results in important gains in bone strength Umemura et al.
The relatively recent application of peripheral quantitative computed tomography for estimating bone strength in youth has also provided some results suggesting an increase in bone strength with greater than usual physical activity Sardinha et al.
The intensity of exercise appears to be a key determinant of the osteogenic response Turner and Robling, Bone tissue, like other tissues, accommodates to usual daily activities. Far fewer randomized controlled trials RCTs examining this relationship have been conducted in children than in adults, and there is little evidence on dose response to show how the type of exercise interacts with frequency, intensity, and duration. Taken together, however, the available evidence supports beneficial effects of physical activity in promoting bone development Bailey et al.
Physical activity may reduce osteoporosis-related fracture risk by increasing bone mineral accrual during development; by enhancing bone strength; and by reducing the risk of falls by improving muscle strength, flexibility, coordination, and balance Bloomfield et al.
Early puberty is a key developmental period. Approximately 26 percent of the mineral content in the adult skeleton is accrued during the 2 years around the time of peak height velocity Bailey et al. This amount of mineral accrual represents approximately the same amount of bone mineral that most people will lose in their entire adult lives Arlot et al.
The increase in mineral contributes to increased bone strength. Mineral is accrued on the periosteal surface of bone, such that the bone grows wider. Increased bone width, independent of the increased mineral mass, also contributes to greater bone strength. Indeed, an increase of as little as 1 mm in the outer surface of bone increases strength substantially. Adding bone to the endosteal surface also increases strength Parfitt, ; Wang et al.
Increases in testosterone may be a greater stimulus of periosteal expansion than estrogen since testosterone contributes to wider and stronger bones in males compared with females.
RCTs on this issue are few, although the available data are promising McKay et al. Thus, impact exercise begun in childhood may result in lasting structural changes that may contribute to increased bone strength and decreased fracture risk later in life Turner and Robling, ; Ferrari et al.
Adipocytes are distributed throughout the body in various organs and tissues, although they are largely clustered anatomically in structures called fat depots, which include a large number of adipocytes held together by a scaffold-like structure of collagen and other structural molecules. In the traditional view of the adipocyte, the cell provides a storage structure for fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerol molecules, with fatty acids being released when metabolic fuel is needed Arner and Eckel, The role of adipocytes in regulation of energy balance and in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the potential effects of physical activity on adipocyte function are of particular interest here, given growing concerns related to pediatric and adult obesity Ogden et al.
Adipocytes increase in size hypertrophy and number hyperplasia from birth through childhood and adolescence and into young adulthood to accommodate energy storage needs. In total the adipose organ contains about 0.
The Friendship quotient
There is wide interindividual variation, however, and the difficulty of investigating changes in the number and size of adipocytes is obvious given the invasiveness of the required biopsy procedures; understandably, then, data on these topics are scarce in children and adolescents. Also, since only subcutaneous depots are accessible, results must be extrapolated from a few sites. Based on such information, the average size of adipocytes has been reported to increase two- to threefold in the first year of life, with little increase in nonobese boys and girls until puberty Malina et al.
A small increase in average adipocyte size at puberty is more obvious in girls than in boys. There is considerable variation in size across various subcutaneous sites and between subcutaneous and internal depots. The number of adipocytes is difficult to estimate. Available data suggest that the cellularity of adipose tissue does not increase significantly in early postnatal life Malina et al.
Thus, gain in fat mass is the result of an increase in the size of existing adipocytes. From about years of age and continuing through early and middle childhood, the number of adipocytes increases gradually two- to threefold. With puberty the number practically doubles, followed by a plateau in late adolescence and early adulthood. The number of adipocytes is similar in boys and girls until puberty, when girls experience a greater increase than boys.
The increases in the number of adipocytes during infancy and puberty are considered critical for enlargement of the adipose tissue organ and for the risk of obesity. Since size and number are linked, the number of adipocytes can potentially increase at any age if fat storage mechanisms are stimulated by chronic energy surfeit Hager, ; Chumlea et al.
Energy expenditure through regular physical activity is a critical element in preventing energy surfeit and excess adiposity. While cellularity undoubtedly is strongly genetically determined, regular physical activity, through its contribution to energy expenditure, can contribute to less adipocyte hyperplasia by limiting hypertrophy.
Fat distribution Fat distribution refers to the location of fat depots on the body. The metabolic activities of fat depots differ, and small variation can have a long-term impact on fat distribution. Differences in metabolic properties across depots also have clinical implications. Visceral adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity is more metabolically active reflected by free fatty acid flux than adipose tissue in other areas Arner and Eckel,and higher amounts of visceral adipose tissue are associated with greater risk of metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease Daniels et al.
In contrast, subcutaneous fat, particularly in the gluteofemoral region, is generally associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic disease. Age- and sex-associated variations in fat distribution contribute to age- and sex-associated differences in cardiometabolic disease prevalence.
Girls have more subcutaneous fat than boys at all ages, although relative fat distribution is similar. After a rapid rise in subcutaneous fat in the first few months of life, both sexes experience a reduction through age 6 or 7 Malina and Roche, ; Malina and Bouchard, ; Malina, Girls then show a linear increase in subcutaneous fat, whereas boys show a small increase between ages 7 and 12 or 13 and then an overall reduction during puberty.
The thickness of subcutaneous fat on the trunk is approximately one-half that of subcutaneous fat on the extremities in both boys and girls during childhood.
The ratio increases with age in males during adolescence but changes only slightly in girls. In males the increasing ratio of trunk to extremity subcutaneous fat is a consequence of slowly increasing trunk subcutaneous fat and a decrease in subcutaneous fat on the extremities. In girls, trunk and extremity subcutaneous fat increase at a similar rate; thus the ratio is stable Malina and Bouchard, As a consequence, the sex difference in the distribution of body fat develops during adolescence.
It is important to note that changes in subcutaneous fat pattern do not necessarily represent changes in abdominal visceral adipose tissue. Tracking of subcutaneous fat has been investigated based on skinfold thicknesses and radiographs of fat widths in males and females across a broad age range Katzmarzyk et al. Results indicate that subcutaneous fat is labile during early childhood.
After age 7 to 8, correlations between subcutaneous fat in later childhood and adolescence and adult subcutaneous fat are significant and moderate.
Longitudinal data on tracking of visceral adipose tissue are not available, but percent body fat does appear to track. Thus children and especially adolescents with higher levels of body fat have a higher risk of being overfat at subsequent examinations and in adulthood, although variation is considerable, with some individuals moving away from high fatness categories, while some lean children move into higher fatness categories.
In cross-sectional studies, active children and adolescents tend to have lower skinfold thicknesses and less overall body fat than their less active peers Loftin et al. Longitudinal studies indicate small differences in fatness between active and inactive boys and girls.
Although some school-based studies of the effects of physical activity on body composition have reported changes in BMI or skinfolds in the desired direction Gortmaker et al. High levels of physical activity are most likely needed to modify skinfold thicknesses and percent body fat. In adults, visceral adipose tissue declines with weight loss with exercise. In contrast, in a study of obese children ageda 4-month physical activity program resulted in minimal change in abdominal visceral adipose tissue but a significant loss in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue Gutin and Owens, In adults, decreases in fatness with exercise are due to a reduction in fat cell size, not number You et al.
Given that adipocyte hypertrophy may trigger adipocyte hyperplasia Ballor et al. Regular physical activity also affects adipose tissue metabolism so that trained individuals have an increased ability to mobilize and oxidize fat, which is associated with increased levels of lipolysis, an increased respiratory quotient, and a lower risk of obesity Depres and Lamarche, Cardiorespiratory System The ability to perform sustained activity under predominantly aerobic conditions depends on the capacity of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to deliver oxygenated blood to tissues and on the ability of tissues primarily skeletal muscle to extract oxygen and oxidize substrate.
By age 2 the systems are fully functional, although young children lack the cardiorespiratory capacity of older children and adults because of their small size Malina et al. Children's aerobic capacity and consequently their ability to exercise for longer periods of time increase as they grow. Maximal aerobic power liters per minute increases fairly linearly in boys until about age 16, whereas it increases in girls until about age 13 and then plateaus during adolescence Malina et al.
Changes with age and sex differences are explained largely by differences in the size of the relevant tissues. Dimensions of the heart and lungs enlarge with age in a manner consistent with the increase in body mass and stature Malina et al. The increase in the size of the heart is associated with increases in stroke volume blood pumped per beat and cardiac output product of stroke volume and heart rate, liters per minutedespite a decline in heart rate during growth.
Similarly, increase in lung size proportional to growth in height results in greater lung volume and ventilation despite an age-associated decline in breathing frequency. The general pattern of increase as a function of height is similar in boys and girls.
In both, lung function tends to lag behind the increase in height during the adolescent growth spurt. As a result, peak gains in lung function occur about 2 years earlier in girls than in boys. Blood volume is highly related to body mass and heart size in children and adolescents, and it is also well correlated with maximal oxygen uptake during childhood and adolescence Malina et al.
Blood volume increases from birth through adolescence, following the general pattern for changes in body mass. Both red blood cells and hemoglobin have a central role in transport of oxygen to tissues.
Hematocrit, the percentage of blood volume explained by blood cells, increases progressively throughout childhood and adolescence in boys, but only through childhood in girls. Hemoglobin content, which is related to maximal oxygen uptake, heart volume, and body mass, increases progressively with age into late adolescence. Males have greater hemoglobin concentrations than females, especially relative to blood volume, which has functional implications for oxygen transport during intense exercise.
Growth in maximal aerobic power is influenced by growth in body size, so controlling for changes in body size during growth is essential. Although absolute liters per minute aerobic power increases into adolescence relative to body weight, there is a slight decline in both boys and girls, suggesting that body weight increases at a faster rate than maximal oxygen consumption, particularly during and after the adolescent growth spurt Malina et al. Changes in maximal oxygen consumption during growth tend to be related more closely to fat-free mass than to body mass.
Nevertheless, sex differences in maximal oxygen consumption per unit fat-free mass persist, and maximal oxygen consumption per unit fat-free mass declines with age. Improvements in cardiorespiratory function—involving structural and functional adaptations in the lungs, heart, blood, and vascular system, as well as the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle—occur with regular vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity Malina et al. Concern about the application of invasive techniques limits the available data on adaptations in the oxygen transport system in children.
Nevertheless, it is clear that aerobic capacity in youth increases with activity of sufficient intensity and that maximal stroke volume, blood volume, and oxidative enzymes improve after exercise training Rowland, Training-induced changes in other components of the oxygen transport system remain to be determined.
Health- and Performance-Related Fitness Physical fitness is a state of being that reflects a person's ability to perform specific exercises or functions and is related to present and future health outcomes. Historically, efforts to assess the physical fitness of youth focused on measures designed to evaluate the ability to carry out certain physical tasks or activities, often related to athletic performance.
In more recent years, the focus has shifted to greater emphasis on evaluating health-related fitness IOM, a and assessing concurrent or future health status.
Health- and performance-related fitness, while overlapping, are different constructs. Age- and sex-related changes in the components of both are strongly linked to the developmental changes in tissues and systems that occur during childhood and adolescence.
Although genetic factors ultimately limit capacity, environmental and behavioral factors, including physical activity, interact with genes to determine the degree to which an individual's full capacity is achieved.
Health-Related Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition are components of health-related fitness historically assessed in school-based fitness assessment programs IOM, a. These components of health-related fitness are considered important since they can be linked to the risk of cardiometabolic disease and musculoskeletal disability, chronic hypokinetic-related diseases.
Cardiorespiratory endurance Cardiorespiratory aerobic endurance reflects the functioning of the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems to deliver oxygen and the ability of tissues primarily skeletal muscle to extract oxygen from the blood.
Defined clinically as the maximum oxygen consumption during a maximal graded exercise test, in practice it is usually measured indirectly as performance on a field test of endurance, such as 1- or 2-mile run time IOM, a. During childhood, aerobic capacity approximately doubles in both boys and girls, although girls on average possess a lower capacity. Males continue to improve during adolescence, up to ageswhile aerobic capacity plateaus around age 14 in females Malina et al.
Favorable associations have been found between aerobic endurance and high-density lipoproteins, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI, measures of fatness, arterial stiffness, and measures of insulin sensitivity Boreham et al.
Some evidence suggests a decline in aerobic endurance among U. Aerobic exercise has been shown to increase cardiorespiratory endurance by about percent in youth Malina et al. The programs that produce this benefit involve continuous vigorous- or moderate-intensity aerobic activity of various types for minutes per session at least 3 days per week over a period of at least months Baquet et al.
Muscle strength and endurance Muscle strength is defined as the highest force generated during a single maximum voluntary contraction, whereas muscle endurance is the ability to perform repeated muscular contraction and force development over a period of time.
Muscle strength and endurance are correlated, especially at higher levels of force production. Muscle strength is proportional to the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle; consequently, strength growth curves parallel growth curves for body weight and skeletal muscle mass Malina et al.
Both males and females show impressive increases in muscle strength from childhood to adolescence.
Friendship and Relationship Quotient (FQ)
Strength in children increases linearly, with boys having a slight advantage over girls. However, these sex differences are magnified during the adolescent years as a result of maturation Malina and Roche, Differences in muscle strength between boys and girls become more apparent after puberty, primarily as a result of the production of sex steroid hormones.
In boys the increase in strength during adolescence lags behind the growth spurt by at least a year peak height velocitywhich may explain why some boys experience a brief period of clumsiness or awkwardness during puberty, as they have not yet acquired the muscle strength necessary to handle the changes associated with their larger bodies.
Muscle strength increases at its greatest rate approximately 1 year after peak height velocity in boys, whereas for girls the strength spurt generally occurs during the same year as peak height velocity Bar-Or, A compelling body of evidence indicates that with resistance training children and adolescents can significantly increase their strength above that expected as a result of normal growth and maturation, provided that the training program is of sufficient intensity, volume, and duration Committee on Sports Medicine Fitness, Both boys and girls can benefit, and strength gains in children as young as have been reported Faigenbaum et al.
Gains in muscle strength of about 30 percent are typical, although considerably larger gains have been reported. Adolescents make greater gains than preadolescents in absolute strength, whereas reported relative percent above initial strength gains in strength during preadolescence and adolescence are similar. As in adults, training adaptations in youth are specific to the muscle action or muscle groups that are trained, and gains are transient if training is not maintained Faigenbaum et al.
Youth resistance training, as with most physical activities, does carry some degree of risk of musculoskeletal injury, yet the risk is no greater than that associated with other sports and activities in which children and adolescents participate Council on Sports Medicine Fitness, ; Faigenbaum et al.
A traditional area of concern has been the potential for training-induced damage to growth cartilage, which could result in growth disturbances. However, a recent review found no reports of injury to growth cartilage in any prospective study of resistance training in youth and no evidence to suggest that resistance training negatively impacts growth and maturation during childhood and adolescence Faigenbaum et al.
Injuries typically occur in unsupervised settings and when inappropriate loads and progressions are imposed. In addition to the obvious goal of gaining strength, resistance training may be undertaken to improve sports performance and prevent injuries, rehabilitate injuries, and enhance health.
Appropriately supervised programs emphasizing strengthening of trunk muscles in children theoretically benefit sport-specific skill acquisition and postural control, although these benefits are difficult to study and thus are supported by little empirical evidence Council on Sports Medicine Fitness, Similarly, results are inconsistent regarding the translation of increased strength to enhanced athletic performance in youth. Limited evidence suggests that strength-training programs that address common overuse injuries may help reduce injuries in adolescents, but whether the same is true in preadolescents is unclear Council on Sports Medicine Fitness, Increasing evidence suggests that strength training, like other forms of physical activity, has a beneficial effect on measurable health indices in youth, such as cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity Faigenbaum, ; Benson et al.
Some work has shown that muscle fitness, reflected in a composite index combining measures of muscle strength and endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently and negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk Steene-Johannessen et al. Moreover, children with low muscle strength may be at increased risk of fracture with exercise Clark et al.
Finally, muscle hypertrophy, which adds to fat-free mass, contributes to resting metabolic rate and therefore total daily energy expenditure. Resistance training may be particularly useful for raising metabolic rate in overweight and obese children without the risk associated with higher-impact activities Watts et al.
At all ages, girls demonstrate greater flexibility than boys, and the difference is greatest during the adolescent growth spurt and sexual maturation. Perhaps the most common field measure of flexibility in children and youth is the sit-and-reach test IOM, b of low-back flexibility. Low-back flexibility as measured by this test is stable in girls from age 5 to 11 and increases until late adolescence.
In boys, low-back flexibility declines linearly starting at age 5, reaching its nadir at about age 12, and then increases into late adolescence.
The unique pattern of age- and sex-associated variation is related to the growth of the lower extremities and the trunk during adolescence. In boys the nadir in low-back flexibility coincides with the adolescent growth spurt in leg length. In both boys and girls, the increase during adolescence coincides with the growth spurt in trunk length and arm length, which influences reach.
Flexibility in both males and females tends to decline after age 17, in part as a result of a decline in physical activity and normal aging. The principal health outcomes hypothesized to be associated with flexibility are prevention of and relief from low-back pain, prevention of musculoskeletal injury, and improved posture. These associations have been studied in adults, with equivocal results Plowman, Although flexibility has long been included in national youth fitness tests, it has proven difficult to establish a link between flexibility and health IOM, a.
In contrast to other fitness components that are general or systemic in nature, flexibility is highly specific to each joint of the body. Although appropriate stretching may increase flexibility, establishing a link to improved functional capacity and fitness is difficult. A few studies suggest that improvements in flexibility as measured by the sit-and-reach test may be related to less low-back pain Jones et al.
Consequently, the Institute of Medicine IOM Committee on Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in its recent report elected to forego recommending a flexibility test for a national youth fitness test battery pending further research to confirm the relationship between flexibility and health and to develop national normative data IOM, a.
Body composition Body composition is the component of health-related fitness that relates to the relative amount of adipose tissue, muscle, bone, and other vital components e. Most feasible methods for assessing body composition are based on models that divide the body into fat and fat-free all nonfat constituents components Going et al.
Although fat mass and adipose tissue are not equivalent components, fat mass is easier to estimate than adipose tissue, and it is correlated with performance and disease risk.
In settings in which estimation of body fat is difficult, weight-for-height ratios often are used as surrogates for body composition. Indeed, definitions of pediatric overweight and obesity have been based on BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height squared. Child and adolescent obesity defined by BMI remains at all-time highs. Population surveys indicate that approximately 33 percent of all boys and girls are overweight, and nearly one in five are obese Ogden and Flegal, The tendency for excess fatness to persist from childhood and adolescence into adulthood Daniels et al.
The increase in prevalence of obesity is undoubtedly due to a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure.
Joe Maddon's relationship with old-school baseball? It's complicated
Population surveys have shown that few children and youth meet recommended levels of daily physical activity see Chapter 2. Prospective studies have shown a significant and inverse relationship between habitual physical activity and weight gain Berkey et al. These relationships are better established in adults than in children and youth, although even in preschool children, low levels of physical activity, estimated from doubly labeled water, were found to be indicative of higher body fat content Davies et al.
While studies of exercise without caloric restriction generally show only small effects on body weight, significant albeit moderate reductions of body fat are generally reported Eisenmann, Moreover, even in the absence of significant weight loss, exercise has beneficial effects on risk factors for cardiometabolic disease Ross and Bradshaw, ; Gutin and Owens, Body mass index Changes in weight for height with growth and maturation for U.
Current growth curves were derived from U. In boys and girls, BMI declines during early childhood, reaching its nadir at about agesand then increases through adolescence. A gender difference emerges during puberty, with males gaining greater fat-free mass than females. Physical activity and BMI are inversely correlated in children and adolescents, although the correlations are modest Lohman et al. Indeed, when studied separately, fat mass index FMI, or fat mass divided by height squared and fat-free mass index FFMI, or fat-free mass divided by height squared are both inversely related to physical activity.
Friendship and Relationship Quotient (FQ) | Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Sciences
With FMI controlled, however, FFMI is positively related to physical activity, indicating that, for a given level of body fat, individuals with more fat-free mass are more active Lohman et al. BMI cut-points for defining overweight and obesity have historically been based on age- and gender-specific population distributions of BMI.
Recent work has shown good correspondence between BMI standards and percent fat standards that are referenced to health criteria Laurson et al. These new standards should prove useful for identifying children and adolescents at risk for higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Percent body fat Direct measures of body fat as a percent of weight provide a better index of adiposity and health risk than BMI Zeng et al.
From this bad start, a romance develops. Babe Ruth, Anna Q. The Babe Ruth Story The famed slugger is played by Bendix, who resembles Ruth slightly in looks and not at all in baseball ability.
The film traces the "life and times" of Ruth, including his famous "called shot" in the World Series. Big hit with kids in its day. Still makes them cheer out loud today. Morris Buttermaker, a drunken ex-ballplayer, is forced to coach a local little league team of misfits.
Buttermaker is more interested in beer and babes until he grows tired of seeing the team lose. In an effort to change things around, Buttermaker begins to teach the kids how to play and recruits 2 new ballplayers. Although still a crazy bunch, the team begins to make drastic improvements and now has a shot at the championship. Not as funny as first, but still great fun for kids.
James Rated PG Runtime: This was not very popular, and is appealing only to "Bears" obsessives. Haley Rated PG Runtime: Bret Packard is the best baseball player in the world. Bret Packard is rich, famous, good-looking, and set to win his fourth championship ring. But Bret Packard is bored. Packard turns malevolent puppetmaster, personally orchestrating the spiritual destruction of his teammates. Not as appealing to sports movie fans as those those who like sensitive, emotionally provocative drama, strong performances.
Guaranteed to please fans of emotionally potent tearjerkers. The series spans years, starting with the tale of baseball's true beginnings.
Then follow the growth of America's National Pastime through the decades of glory and record-setting achievements, as well as the scandals, the bigotry, and the big money. The series portrays the game as a mirror of America itself -- the passions, prejudices, and ambitions that have shape the country.
Our Game Inning 2: Something Like War Inning 3: A National Heirloom Inning 5: Shadow Ball Inning 6: A National Pastime Inning 7: The Capital of Baseball Inning 8: A Whole New Ballgame Inning 9: Home Inning A camera crew followed the minor league team everywhere during the season.
Game-day highlights are woven into the individual stories of the Saints players. Seido High's baseball team is set to open their season against the dreaded Gedos, blue-faced zombie baseball players known for impaling, maiming and literally destroying the competition. Though initially reluctant to join the team, new student Yakyu Jubei eventually suits up, and helps to rack up the body count for the good guys. When love enters his life, it unexpectedly alters Artie's low self-esteem; and the odds for winning--not only the league trophy but a new life--are considerably amped along with the comedy and chaos.
Renaming themselves "Big Guns," they get serious and play hard. Maybe just a little to hard. Illegal bats, booze, ringers and wild women bring out the worst in them.
Making even wise old guys think twice as they rediscover that love and friendship are most important than winning. Every year, he evaluates the year old hopefuls to pick the best for a minor league contract. This year John's niece comes down from the home office in New York and is attracted to tall quiet Adam.
A mystery unfolds as the secrets from their past return to haunt them and a vengeful killer, hidden by an antique umpire's mask, returns to even the score.
Its sharp satire, energetic performances has made it a cult classic amongst African-American cinema fans, and baseball-lovers. While older brother Terry descends into drugs and crime, year-old Cole vies to make the state baseball championships.
When the two inevitably clash in a life-and-death confrontation, family ties-and futures-are at stake. Five men, each of whose dream was dashed at an early age due to blindness, as if the stadium lights suddenly went dark.