Influence of Industrialization and Urbanization on China’s Energy Consumption
Industrialization and Urbanization: Studies in Interdisciplinary History view of the relationship between modernization and industrialization which seems to me . Relationship between Urbanisation and Industrialisation traditional boundaries and achieve those goals and aspirations that give him an identity of his own. among industrialization, urbanization, and tourism as follows: (1) the higher the urbanization in a Keywords—urbanization, industrialization, tourism, correlation World urbanization prospects: the revision, highlights (ST/ ESA/SER.
The traditional nature of the economic growth of Africa has largely been based on the primary sectors of the economy, mainly agriculture and extractive industries. The next steps of substantive development are already moving towards more productive sectors of the economy, mainly industrial manufacturing secondary sector and services tertiary sector.
Therefore, the relationship between urbanization and industrialization is undeniable. How can industries facilitate the effective implementation of this MoU in cities along the Belt and Road?
This includes issues relating to national urban policies, land use and its administration, urban and territorial planning, the development of urban infrastructure and services, the spatial planning of special economic zones and of border towns, human settlements and housing development, as well as policies for human settlements and city migrants. With respect to these cooperation areas, industries can play an important and positive role, for example as follows.
For the formulation of national urban policies, urban and territorial planning in many developing countries, industrial development policies, industries layout and their distribution must be one of the important elements of policies and planning. Industrialization will interact with urbanization in a positive way if both are harnessed in harmony, in a balanced and sustainable manner.
Industries can provide sustainable urbanization with immense driving force. This is particularly critical for the spatial planning of special economic zones. In this respect, China has a lot of experience and has learnt lessons in past decades which can be shared with the countries along the Belt and Road.
For promoting the development of improved urban basic services and housing, it is hard to realize the effective delivery without applying the advanced technologies provide by industries. Innovation and the upgrading of relevant industrial products and technologies must drive the progress of applicable technologies in the field of basic urban services and housing which has been manifested in many countries in the process of urbanization.
Compelling evidence is still currently lacking, however, and needs to be compiled. First, there has been a substantial change in global urbanization levels and economic development over the past 30 years. This provides a natural checkpoint for verifying whether the existing empirical data support the new view. Second, within the ambit of globalization, most countries are deeply integrated within world systems.
Hence, it is desirable to examine the changing global pattern as a whole. We propose to re-examine the arguments that support the view that was widespread in the past or that favor the new vision. The present study aims to address the following questions: To answer these two questions, an interdisciplinary methodology for identifying the spatio-temporal pattern is applied to explore the effects of the urbanization process on economic growth, in the context of cross-country panel data derived from the World Bank data sets.
Data and Methods Urbanization began during the Industrial Revolution, and refers to the increasing number of people that live in urban areas. Urbanization is not only about a simple increase in the number of urban residents, but also involves a series change from rural to urban styles in terms of industry structure, employment, living conditions, and social public services. Economic growth is the increase in the value of goods and services produced by a country or regional economy over time. Two key indicators are selected to measure development level: The empirical data cover countries and regions of the world, with yearly observations since Data were converted to international dollars by deflating current local currency units with a Chilean GDP deflator of base year Urbanization level is the ratio of urban to total population.
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas, as defined by national statistical offices. In addition, the purpose of this article is to examine the correlation difference between the level and speed of urbanization and economic growth. Thus, the speed of urbanization and the economic growth rate are computed respectively. The index of Veconomy is a measure of economic growth from — in percentage terms, providing insight into the general direction and magnitude of growth for the overall economy in each country.
It is widely accepted that GIS and associated analytical software have played a critical role in spatial pattern analysis. The spatial analyst function was used to analyze the global urbanization process and changes in the speed of urbanization and economic growth during — The voice of ordinary citizens is much smaller and less influential than corporations who are protected through corporate personhood.
Free Speech including the freedom to influence legislation - Corporations own most TV networks, radio stations, newspapers, billboards, bookstores and magazines, so exercising their right to free speech allows them to influence more people than what you, or any group of persons, could say in a public place.
While on corporate property, workers do not have the right to free speech. Corporations get the same protection - so if a big box chain store wants to move into a community and threaten the existence of small local retailers, it has the right to do so. Search and Seizure - People are protected against the search and seizure of their property without a warrant.
Corporations get the same protection - they cannot be subject to random inspections to determine if they a polluting a river, breaking environmental laws, or abusing their workers. Responsibility — Because corporations exist to make profits for shareholders, any rules that favor a community, environmental concerns, etc.
Thus, they can shirk any responsibility to the public in favor of their responsibility to shareholders; that is, they can damage the public interest in pursuit of profit.
What are some other cost and effect factors of corporate personhood? Unequal protection from risk. Corporations and their shareholders may risk loss of income or loss of their investment while human risk as a result of corporate activity is much higher - environmental degradation, higher rates of cancer and other diseases, job-related disfigurement or death, community and family breakdown due to job loss when factories are closed and jobs are shipped overseas.
Unequal payment of taxes. Over the past years, the tax burden has shifted from corporations to individuals in at least four ways: While corporations maintain their constitutional rights as a person seven days a week, 24 hours a day, days a year, when a human steps onto corporate-owned property of his or her employer, that human voluntarily gives up their constitutional rights to privacy, freedome from search, and free speech.
Your employers can read your email, monitor your computer use, secretly photograph you, listen in on your telephone calls, fire you if you say things it doesn't like, and demand ssamples of bodily fluids; however, the EPA cannot inspect a chemical factory without the permission of the corporation that owns it.
A full chronology of the history of corporations and the rise of corporate personhood can be accessed at http: To understand the problems between labor and management during the Gilded Age Background: The American Civil War was followed by a boom in railroad construction. Thirty-five thousand miles of new track was laid across the country between and At that time, the railroad industry was the nation's largest employer outside of agriculture, and it involved large amounts of money and risk.
Speculators infused cash into the markets and thus caused abnormal growth in industry as well as overbuilding of docks, factories and related facilities. In Septemberthe nation experienced the largest economic crash in its history. The crash was the consequence of over-speculation in the railroad industry which, in turn, brought down many of the nation's largest banks. A five year depression followed the crash - a depression that was especially devastating for the growing number of urban poor.
But as ordinary Americans suffered, the super rich - the Robber Barons - used the crisis as an opportunity to buy up foundering competitors. Morgan was one of these men who wanted to get rid of what he called "wasteful competition. For smaller industrial firms, the situation was desperate; as capital reserves dried up, so did their industries.
The Robber Barons, led by the financial wizardry of J. Morgan, attacked free market competition by buying out their smaller competitors at rock bottom prices Conspicuous consumption versus desperation. Byover millionaires lived in the United States; half of them lived in New York City where their lives were marked by conspicuous consumption - thereby helping them to earn their label, the Robber Barons. An example of such conspicuous consumption occurred inwhen after the completion of their New York City mansion, the Vanderbilt's threw a party that showcased their immense wealth, as well as the wealth of their millionaire friends.
The picture is of Mrs. Vanderbilt as Electric Light. Her gown glitters with an unknown number of real diamonds. As the panic deepened, ordinary Americans suffered terribly. Between andas many smaller factories and workshops closed down, tens of thousands of workers - many former Civil War soldiers - became transients. The terms "tramp" and "bum" became commonplace American terms.
As both the wealth of robber barons and the unemployed soared, so did the resentment of the workers and their families. Relief rolls exploded in major cities, with 25 percent unemploymentpeople in New York City alone.
The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades
Unemployed workers demonstrated in Boston, Chicago, and New York in the winter of demanding public work. In New York's Tompkins Square in Januarypolice entered the crowd with clubs and beat up thousands of men and women. The most violent strikes in American history followed the panic, including by the secret labor group known as the Molly Maguires in Pennsylvania's coal fields inwhen masked workmen exchanged gunfire with the "Coal and Iron Police," a private force commissioned by the state.
A nationwide railroad strike followed inin which mobs destroyed railway hubs in Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Cumberland, Maryland. But when the Depression was over inconflict between the Robber Barons who were richer than ever, and the urban poor, who were poorer than ever, increased rather than diminished.
Working conditions were horrendous during the Gilded Age. In alone, 22, railroad workers were killed or injured on the job. Thousands of others died or were crippled in the nation's mines, steel mills, and textile mills. Not only were workers angry about poor working conditions and mistreatment, they were especially upset about losing their jobs to local or imported strikebreakers and increasing efforts of management to destroy their unions.
As many employers shut down their plants and attempted "to starve" their employees out of the union, violent outbreaks occurred in the North, South, and West, in small communities as well as in large metropolitan cities.
Perhaps the worst, as well as the most famous of all riots occurred in Chicago's Haymarket Square on Tuesday, May 4, It began as a rally in support of striking workers when an unknown person threw a bomb at police as they tried to disperse the public meeting.
The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians. Consequently, eight anarchists were tried for murder. This engraving shows the seven anarchists sentenced to die for the death of a police officer. The eighth defendant, not shown here, was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Four were put to death, one committed suicide in prison, and two had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment.
InGovernor Atgeld commuted the sentence of the three remaining in prison. While workers reacted to the denial of their rights to belong to labor unions and resorted to strikes when conditions became unbearable, the outcome of their violent behavior never changed the course of events - the owners won and the workers lost.
Thus, America's Gilded Age witnessed deep and sometimes violent divisions over the definition of freedom in a rapidly industrializing society. The battle continued into the 20th Century - a battle that pitted the Robber Barons who saw freedom as the opportunity to pursue economic interests without governmental regulation, against workers who believed freedom lay in collective efforts to create safe industrial opportunities for ordinary Americans.
To understand the relationship between industrialization, urbanization, and immigration As industrialization grew in the late 19th century, more people came to American cities for jobs in the new industries. It stands to reason, then, that America became more urban. Just what does this mean? An urban area is characterized by higher population density and higher concentrations of services in comparison with the surrounding areas.
Urbanization occurs when a community takes on the characteristics of a city. A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement of people who generally have some type of system for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation and more. Bythe nation had only 25 cities with more than 50, people - with a total population of 5 million.
Bythere were 58 cities that size with nearly 12 million people; most were in the Northeast and near the Great Lakes. Bycities were in great evidence in the east and mid east; but as the map shows, they were still quite scarce in the west. ByNew York City had 4 million residents!
The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades
What happened was fairly simply and also quite remarkable - after the Civil War as new technologies encouraged the growth of new industries where many jobs were readily available, huge cities grew to house both the growing number of industries and the growing number of industrial workers. The vast majority of cities grew with only minimal, if any planning.
Most choices about land use and construction were made by individual landowners, developers, and builders who wanted to make large profits. So what were the consequences of rapid urbanization during the Gilded Age? On the positive side, urbanization brought new jobs, new opportunities, new housing, and new transportation; but on the negative side, urbanization gave rise to widespread urban poverty, sub-standard housing, environmental degradation, increasing crime and violence, violent clashes between labor and management, and political corruption.
Urbanization in the late s was especially bad in New York City. Since there was no garbage removal system the streets were filthy. Even in the few areas where sewage lines existed, the sewage was emptied into some nearby body of water Few city streets were paved until the very end of the Century, with Washington D.
The quality and quantity of the water supply varied from city to city. Mostly it was very poor and contained many disease-carrying organisms. Lumber demand increased and forests were destroyed.
Poor air quality - such as that seen in this photograph in Pittsburgh in the late 19th Century. Political corruption, patronage, and the "well-greased" political machine The Democratic Party bribed the state legislature to pass laws that increased the power of the city to tax, borrow, and spend. Then a leader built public support by spending tax funds on various charities, helping the poor, and funding construction projects.
The poor and those receiving jobs and construction contracts, in turn, were expected to vote for the politicians. When helping construction businesses, city governors expected kick backs from the already inflated construction budgets, as well as votes.
It all worked like a well-greased machine. When a machine amassed great power - as it did in New York City, it would often have a well-known boss. Unparalled immigration and migration. Immigration is the process of moving from one nation to another nation to permanently resettle.
Migration is the process of moving from one location within a nation to another location within that same nation. And what motivates people to move? Push - Some people are pushed - either through encouragement or force - leave their homes and move to another country. Encouraging push factors include diminishing land resources, unemployment, poverty, drought, economic depression. Forceful push factors include enslavement and imprisonment.
Pull - Some people are pulled to search out a new life in another place. These can political, ideological, and economic - but again, most pull factors are economic. Byimmigration really began to grow - and as it did, new immigrants contined to be a large percentage of the 19th century population. Such changes did little to alter the traditional political, social, and economic structure of American life - white men of European descent continued to control the political environment, the nation was still divided by class, and the rich got richer while the poor maintained their poverty or got poorer.
Our economy was and still is directed by the "haves," but built upon the backs of the "have nots.