Leaf hopper and meat ant relationship questions

Meat ant - Wikipedia

leaf hopper and meat ant relationship questions

Symbiotic relationship between meat ants and leaf hoppers. The Leaf Hopper secretes a sap that the meat ant uses to preserve food with, while. Thanks so much for providing your detailed observations on the symbiotic relationship between Ants and Leafhoppers. Your observations. It is a mutualistic relationship if both organisms benefit, commensalism if one benefits and the other gets nothing, and parasitic if one benefits.

The mesonotum is sinuous meaning it has many curvesand, like the pronotum, has 12 or more mesonotal setae. The mesothoracic spiracles are very small and the propodeal dorsum is smooth or convex.

There are also a number of propodeal setae. There are both non-marginal and marginal setae present on the first gastral tergite around the gaster.

Queens are easily distinguishable from workers by their black colour and larger size, measuring The antennae and legs are ferruginous rust-like colourthe head is fusco-ferruginous, and the sides beneath the face and mandibles are ferruginous.

The head is wider than the thorax and emarginate. There is an impressed line that runs from the anterior nearer to the front of the body stemma to the base of the clypeus.

The wings are subhyalineexhibiting a glassy appearance.

leaf hopper and meat ant relationship questions

The wings are yellowish along the anterior margin of the superior pair and also around the base; the nervures the veins of the wings are rufo -fuscous.

Males are bright violet, and the antennae except for the first joint and tarsi are ferruginous. Like the queen, the wings are subhyaline imperfectly hyaline and the nervures are rufo-fuscous. The abdomen shows a bright green tinge when seen under certain light. The head and anus are ventral.

The integument is covered in spinules that are either isolated from each other or in short rows on the posterior somite and on the ventral surface. The body hairs are very short, measuring 0. These spinules are either isolated or seen in near parallel rows. Several head hairs are present but they are small at 0. Each lobe has spinules and three sensilla simple sensory receptors around the anterior surface. The ventral border only has two sensilla and a number of spinules, and on the posterior surface, there are several rows of spinules and three sensilla.

The mandibles have a central apical most distal plate or appendage from the body tooth which is clearly noticeable and sharp. The maxillae have lobes, and the labial palps sensory structures on the labium are knob-shaped.

Aside from colour differentiation that was a key morphological character to distinguish I. For example, those that are found in very hot regions tend to be larger, whereas those found in regions of high humidity tend to be smaller than average.

For example, populations restricted to the coasts of Western Australia usually have pale setae, compared to most colonies throughout the country, which have the common blackish setae.

The variation of the iridescence is, however, a consistent pattern found in other Iridomyrmex species with little distinction, making it a subtle character. Shattuck further notes that populations found throughout the Northern Territory and South Australia have reduced pubescence on the first gastral tergite, but this is different elsewhere.

Its isolation has also allowed meat ants to form associations with neighbouring nests of the same species. In Queenslandthey are frequently encountered in the eastern regions, whereas their abundance is limited around the north and central parts. In the Northern Territory, specimens have been collected in the north and south regions but compared to other jurisdictions the ant is uncommon. The meat ant shares its distribution with many other animals and insects, some of which may cause harm to the ant or rival it, such as the banded sugar ant Camponotus consobrinus.

Meat ants are able to survive in dry areas if there is a rich supply of water and food resources such as honeydew and arthropod preyespecially along river banks, station properties and irrigated areas. In the south coast of New South Wales, meat ants are mainly found in heath shrubland, but are absent from heavily timbered slopes and cannot build nests in quartz. Other areas where the ants do not occur include dense pastures, dense bushes, tropical rainforests and treeless areas. Their populations would later flourish and nests became numerous around houses after shrubs and trees were planted.

On the surface on the nest, workers clear the area of vegetation and cover the mound with gravel, but may use other materials that are available, including sand, pebbles, dead vegetation, eucalyptus fruits and twig fragments. The ant is a polydomous species, meaning that they live in more than one nest.

Hence, nests can be very old as suggested in one study. The regrowth of vegetation which shades the nest, soil damage or even a disease may wipe out a colony and leave the nest site completely abandoned.

Satellite nests may diverge from their parent nests to become independent, as suggested by the antagonism of worker ants from different nests or when others are uninhabitable by insecticide treatment. After the eradication of a nest, satellite nests emerge nearby, and may sever their connections with the parent nest. As most satellite nests have 11 holes and accept a queen of their own, a satellite nest may easily develop maturity in one year.

Beneath the surface, there are widened circular vertical shafts which are 1.

Living With All Life - In-Harmony Foundation

Below these shafts, the tunnels turn into irregular galleries with paths going outward and downward which form more galleries. Almost all of these galleries are clustered together 15 to 20 centimetres 5. However, there is no known physical connection. Each gallery has a flat floor, a domed roof and is irregularly oval-shaped. A gallery is typically 1.

What is the symbiotic relationship Leafhopper and meat ant? | Experts

Below the galleries are a small number of shafts in undisturbed soil with large, yet scattered chambers where the population remains during the winter. Overall, a nest may dwell extremely deep beneath the soil as excavated nests are as deep as 3 metres 9.

However, some ants such as the green-head ant Rhytidoponera metallica are not affected by the presence of meat ants and are still successful in finding food sources. They heavily rely on any food source and the impossibility of successfully defending it from other ants may have led to its peaceful coexistence with dominant species, including meat ants. This means green-head ants avoid conflict with meat ants.

In particular, Monomorium ants have been observed occupying baits regardless of the presence or absence of the meat ant. However, the presence of meats ants does not affect abundant species, and most of the time it is only Iridomyrmex ants that increase their foraging rate. If present, meat ants rely on rapidly discovering food sources and retain their dominance so other ants cannot collect them, as well as exploitation and interference which helps displace other ants.

The habitat meat ants live in may affect their dominance among the fauna. They are less successful in complex habitats and more successful in open areas, allowing workers to forage efficiently; for example, workers forage around rocks and collect food sources more successfully in contrast to those in vegetation. Meat ants are normally larger than other Iridomyrmex species and can displace or even kill those trying to compete for food sources.

The similar behaviours among meat ants and certain Iridomyrmex species have increased the level of conflict among each other, especially those in open habitats.

Workers can withstand such temperatures by exhibiting opportunistic thermal responses to adjust their behaviour in order to handle high trail temperatures and alter their thermal biology for low temperatures. They will also deliberately expose themselves closely to their thermal maxima. In one study, the removal of meat ants allowed the successful foraging of Iridomyrmex ants at carbohydrate sources, but not for protein baits. In contrast with camponotines and some myrmicinesboth of their success was affected at numerous food sources with meat ants present.

For example, those that are found in very hot regions tend to be larger, whereas those found in regions of high humidity tend to be smaller than average. For example, populations restricted to the coasts of Western Australia usually have pale setae, compared to most colonies throughout the country, which have the common blackish setae.

The variation of the iridescence is, however, a consistent pattern found in other Iridomyrmex species with little distinction, making it a subtle character.

leaf hopper and meat ant relationship questions

Shattuck further notes that populations found throughout the Northern Territory and South Australia have reduced pubescence on the first gastral tergite, but this is different elsewhere. Its isolation has also allowed meat ants to form associations with neighbouring nests of the same species. In Queenslandthey are frequently encountered in the eastern regions, whereas their abundance is limited around the north and central parts. In the Northern Territory, specimens have been collected in the north and south regions but compared to other jurisdictions the ant is uncommon.

The meat ant shares its distribution with many other animals and insects, some of which may cause harm to the ant or rival it, such as the banded sugar ant Camponotus consobrinus. Meat ants are able to survive in dry areas if there is a rich supply of water and food resources such as honeydew and arthropod preyespecially along river banks, station properties and irrigated areas.

In the south coast of New South Wales, meat ants are mainly found in heath shrubland, but are absent from heavily timbered slopes and cannot build nests in quartz.

Other areas where the ants do not occur include dense pastures, dense bushes, tropical rainforests and treeless areas. Their populations would later flourish and nests became numerous around houses after shrubs and trees were planted. On the surface on the nest, workers clear the area of vegetation and cover the mound with gravel, but may use other materials that are available, including sand, pebbles, dead vegetation, eucalyptus fruits and twig fragments.

The ant is a polydomous species, meaning that they live in more than one nest. Hence, nests can be very old as suggested in one study. The regrowth of vegetation which shades the nest, soil damage or even a disease may wipe out a colony and leave the nest site completely abandoned.

Satellite nests may diverge from their parent nests to become independent, as suggested by the antagonism of worker ants from different nests or when others are uninhabitable by insecticide treatment. After the eradication of a nest, satellite nests emerge nearby, and may sever their connections with the parent nest. As most satellite nests have 11 holes and accept a queen of their own, a satellite nest may easily develop maturity in one year. Beneath the surface, there are widened circular vertical shafts which are 1.

Below these shafts, the tunnels turn into irregular galleries with paths going outward and downward which form more galleries. Almost all of these galleries are clustered together 15 to 20 centimetres 5.

What is the symbiotic relationship Leafhopper and meat ant?

However, there is no known physical connection. Each gallery has a flat floor, a domed roof and is irregularly oval-shaped. A gallery is typically 1. Below the galleries are a small number of shafts in undisturbed soil with large, yet scattered chambers where the population remains during the winter.

Overall, a nest may dwell extremely deep beneath the soil as excavated nests are as deep as 3 metres 9. However, some ants such as the green-head ant Rhytidoponera metallica are not affected by the presence of meat ants and are still successful in finding food sources. They heavily rely on any food source and the impossibility of successfully defending it from other ants may have led to its peaceful coexistence with dominant species, including meat ants.

This means green-head ants avoid conflict with meat ants. In particular, Monomorium ants have been observed occupying baits regardless of the presence or absence of the meat ant. However, the presence of meats ants does not affect abundant species, and most of the time it is only Iridomyrmex ants that increase their foraging rate.

If present, meat ants rely on rapidly discovering food sources and retain their dominance so other ants cannot collect them, as well as exploitation and interference which helps displace other ants. The habitat meat ants live in may affect their dominance among the fauna. They are less successful in complex habitats and more successful in open areas, allowing workers to forage efficiently; for example, workers forage around rocks and collect food sources more successfully in contrast to those in vegetation.

Meat ants are normally larger than other Iridomyrmex species and can displace or even kill those trying to compete for food sources.

The similar behaviours among meat ants and certain Iridomyrmex species have increased the level of conflict among each other, especially those in open habitats. Workers can withstand such temperatures by exhibiting opportunistic thermal responses to adjust their behaviour in order to handle high trail temperatures and alter their thermal biology for low temperatures. They will also deliberately expose themselves closely to their thermal maxima.

In one study, the removal of meat ants allowed the successful foraging of Iridomyrmex ants at carbohydrate sources, but not for protein baits. In contrast with camponotines and some myrmicinesboth of their success was affected at numerous food sources with meat ants present.

Camponotines exhibit no aggression and cannot defend themselves. Depending on the definition used, as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles, and it is also frequent in plants and fungi. Amensalism Amensalism is the type of symbiotic relationship that exists where one species is inhibited or completely obliterated and one is unaffected.

The mature tree can begin to rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients.

Throughout the process the mature tree is unaffected. Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling. Symbiosis and Evolution Leafhoppers protected by an army of meat ants While historically, symbiosis has received less attention than other interactions such as predation or competition, it is increasingly recognised as an important selective force behind evolution, with many species having a long history of interdependent co-evolution.

In fact, the evolution of all eukaryotes plants, animals, fungi, and protists is believed under the endosymbiotic theory to have resulted from a symbiosis between various sorts of bacteria. Symbiogenesis Symbiogenesis is the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism.

leaf hopper and meat ant relationship questions

The biologist Lynn Margulis, famous for her work on endosymbiosis, contends that symbiosis is a major driving force behind evolution. Whereas the classical interpretation of evolution emphasizes competition as the main force behind evolution, Margulis emphasizes cooperation. A fundamental principle of modern evolutionary theory is that mutations arise one at a time and either spread through the population or not, depending on whether they offer an individual fitness advantage.

Co-evolution Symbiosis played a major role in the co-evolution of flowering plants and the animals that pollinate them. Many plants that are pollinated by insects, bats, or birds have highly specialized flowers modified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is also correspondingly adapted.