Nigeria - Foreign Relations
He described Obasanjo as a special friend of Liberia and commended him for strengthening cordial relationship between Nigeria and his. Relations with other African states constituted the cornerstone of Nigerian foreign In this spirit, it helped to resolve conflicts between Liberia and Sierra Leone. Nigeria's relations with her immediate neighbours have not been dealt with the capital of Liberia, May and was attended by Liberia, Chad,. Ethiopia.
In this pro-Western posture was reinforced by Nigeria's "economic diplomacy," which involved negotiating trade concessions, attracting foreign investors, and rescheduling debt repayment to Western creditors.
Third, the country's membership in and commitment to several international organizations, such as the United Nations and bodies mentioned earlier, also affected foreign policy positions.
Fourth, and most important, as the most populous country in Africa and the entire black world, Nigeria perceived itself as the "giant" of Africa and the potential leader of the black race. Thus, Nigerian external relations have emphasized African issues, which have become the avowed cornerstone of foreign policy.
These factors have caused certain issues to dominate Nigerian foreign policy across various governments, but each government has had distinctive priorities and style. During the s and early s, foreign policy aimed at proper behavior in the international system, and British authorities played a major role in Nigerian foreign relations. Consequently, the Balewa government stressed world peace, respected sovereign equality, and maintained nonalignment based on friendship with any country that took a reciprocal position.
After the fall of the First Republic, critics asserted that the government had been too proWestern and not strong enough on decolonization or integration, and that the low profile had been embarrassing.
Nonetheless, Gowon continued to keep a low profile by operating within the consensus of the OAU and by following routes of quiet diplomacy. The civil war marked a distinct break in Nigerian foreign policy. The actions of various countries and international bodies during the war increased awareness of the alignments within Africa and appreciation of the positive role that the OAU could play in African affairs. Whereas white-dominated African countries had supported Biafra, the OAU sided with the federation by voting for unity.
The OAU stance proved helpful for Nigerian diplomacy. Nigeria first turned to the Soviet Union for support after the West refused to provide arms to the federation, and after the war, a less pro-Western stance was maintained.
At the same time, Africa remained Nigeria's top priority. In the mid- to late s, attention focused on the liberation of southern Africa, on the integration of ECOWAS, and on the need for complete economic independence throughout Africa. These goals were included in the constitution: Relations with Neighboring States Nigeria had cordial relations with all its neighbors--Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea--as well as with other countries in the West African subregion, with most of which it had bilateral agreements.
There had been occasional border disputes with Chad and Cameroon, and military action against these neighbors was contemplated by the civilian government in and Another problem arose in the early s, when Nigeria decided to expel many illegal immigrants, mainly Ghanaians, but this dispute also was resolved amicably.
The guiding principle of Nigeria's regional foreign policy was that of good neighborliness and friendship. Nigeria also tried to make its neighbors "safe" friends, partly to reenforce boundary claims and protect human rights of Nigerian citizens who were migrantworkers and partly to stabilize relations between the immediate neighboring countries. For example, since it has established a strong presence in Equatorial Guinea. To pursue the economic interests through of foreign relations within West Africa, Nigeria championed the formation of ECOWAS and, in spite of competing allegiances to rival organizations within the subcontinent, continued to support the organization's objectives.
Relations with the Rest of Africa The prevailing perception in Nigeria's foreign policy was that, as predominant the African leader, it should play a bigbrother role in relations with African states.
Nigeria was a founding member of the OAU and often channeled major policy initiatives through that organization. Nigeria's primary African commitment was to liberate the continent from the last vestiges of colonialism and to eradicate apartheid in South Africa. Promoting liberation had grown from a weak and conservative stance during the s to an increasingly firm push after the civil war.
- FOREIGN RELATIONS
- akintayo eribake
- Navigation menu
Nigeria had played a role in the independence of Zimbabwe and in the late s was active in assisting Nambibia to achieve independence of Namibia.
The country also contributed financially to liberation movements in South Africa and to the front line states of Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe, which were constantly harassed by South Africa. Although Nigeria's armed forces were among the largest in black Africa in the early s, sizable military might has rarely been used in foreign policy. The army participated in peacekeeping forces, either alone or through the OAU and contributed personnel to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Liberia and Nigeria Sign Five Cooperation Agreements; Liberian Diplomats to Benefit Scholarships
Additional forces were sent in late September under a Nigerian field commander, General Doganyaro. Threats to fight for southern African liberation were made but not acted on, but Nigeria did give military and financial aid to the African National Congress for its efforts against the apartheid regime in South Africa and provided military equipments to Mozambique to help its struggle South African-backed guerrillas.
In addition, Nigeria gave aid and technical assistance to several African states, often through the African Development Bank of which it was a major benefactor. Under it, young Nigerian professionals served in other African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries where their expertise was needed. Nigeria also provided scholarships and fellowships, training facilities, grants, equipment, and medical supplies, and subsidized oil during the s' oil crisis to African countries under certain conditions.
In Julythe Gowon government decided to sell crude oil at concessionary rates to African countries on condition that they had their own refineries and would not re-export to third countries.
The decision came despite Nigeria's role as an Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC member generally in favor of higher prices and after more than two years of deliberations. Nigeria acted largely in response to external pressures: Providing subsidies for African countries was a safe move for Nigeria because Africa comprised only a small portion of the country's total oil export market, it enhanced Nigeria's position and influence in Africa while building African solidarity, and it protected security interests by preventing economic decline.
In NovemberBabangida suggested that Nigeria might again offer concessionary prices to other African countries as the Middle East crises pushed oil prices upward.
Relations with Major Powers During the Gulf crisis that began with Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in the summer of and that marked the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a coalition, Nigeria kept a low profile. Benin has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Cotonou. Burkina Faso has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Ouagadougou. See Cameroon-Nigeria relations A long-standing border dispute with Cameroon over the potentially oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula was resolved by a decision by the International Court of Justice which granted Cameroon ownership of the region and the signing of the Greentree Agreement which led to the withdrawal of Nigerian troops from Bakassi in and complete administrative control being taken over by Cameroon in August Cameroon has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Calabar.
See Chad—Nigeria relations Nigeria's economic austerity campaign produced strains with neighbouring states, including Chad. Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which faced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices.
Foreign relations of Nigeria
At least 30, of those expelled were Chadians. Despite these strains, however, Nigerians had assisted in the halting process of achieving stability in Chad, and both nations reaffirmed their intention to maintain close ties.
Chad has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Maiduguri. Nigeria has an embassy in N'Djamena. Central African Republic has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Bangui. Nigeria has an embassy in Abidjan. DR Congo has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Kinshasa. Egypt has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
Nigeria has an embassy in Cairo.
Ethiopia has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Addis Ababa. Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Abuja and consulates in Calabar and Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Malabo and a consulate in Bata.