Symbiosis on the Coral Reefs Draft #1
Al-though they pre-f-er the seagrass ecosys-tems of the coastal areas, they .. female mate in the summ-er but the relationship is es-tablis-hed ear-li-er in the year. .. Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Three-Lined Pencilfish Scientific. It's not really a relationship so much a category. There's 3 symbiotic relationships. Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parisitism. Mutualism means both organisms. Organisms here generally live in close relationship with the substrate and many .. The queen conch is herbivorous and lives in seagrass beds, although its exact commonly known as the one-lined pencilfish, is a freshwater species of fish.
Ross, Coral reefs are complete ecosystems with well-defined structures that involve both photosynthetic plants and consumers.
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These reefs house thousands of aquatic animals and plants. Some of these include fish, sharks, rays, octopus, sponges, worms, mollusk, sea grasses, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, nudibranches, and algae. They use one another for shelter, protection, camouflage, cleaning, and survival. These relationships can be dispensable or indispensable depending on the species involved. The numerous microhabitats and the productivity of the reefs support a great diversity of marine life.
Figure 6 demonstrates how many animals take advantage of the cover a coral may provide. Murdoch, Symbiotic Relationships exhibited on the Reef Recently scientists have learned to appreciate the intimate relationships found in our ecosystems. Researchers were unaware of the importance that this relationship has played in the coral reef.
The coral reef ecosystem is a diverse collection of species that interact with each other and the physical environment. The sun is the initial source of energy for this ecosystem. Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton, algae, and other plants convert light energy into chemical energy. As animals eat plants or other animals, a portion of this energy is passed on and the energy is recycled.
Refer to figure 7. Murdoch, Due to the lack of nutrients in the coral reefs many of the animals in this ecosystem cannot survive without the codependency of one another.
This process is called symbiosis. Fritz, The aforementioned energy cycle can be enhanced through the symbiotic process. The symbiotic process can attribute to the spread of energy in three ways: Fritz, Mutualism is a relationship in which both species benefit from one another. An example of this is a clown fish. The clownfish is always found in the company of a sea anemone, frequently nestling in venomous tentacles that would ordinarily kill or wound most animals. Miramare Schools, Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship where one species benefits while the other species is not affected.
Examples include shrimp that ward off predators by nestling in the venomous spines of sea urchins, or crabs that protect themselves by pirating formidable, stinging sea anemones and securing them to their shells.
Fritz, Parasitism is a relationship where one organism is aided while the other one is harmed. This is a long cycle. For example a parasite lives in a fish and when a sea gull feeds on the fish, the parasite will then live within the fish. This parasite benefits off of others, while others are harmed. Miramare School, The most celebrated form of symbiosis in the coral reefs can be seen in that of the coral polyp. The success of corals as reef builders is due largely to the mutualistic association with zooxanthellae.
Zooxanthellae are unicellular yellow-brown dinoflagelate algae, which live symbiotically in the gastric-dermis of reef-building corals.
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Murdoch, Through photosynthesis, zooxanthellae convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates. The coral polyp uses carbohydrates as a nutrient. In turn, the polyp provides food to the algae with its waste products. The algae store the waste as ammonia and break it down into nitrogen and phosphorus, which the algae use for energy.Pencilfish Nannostomus eques HD Stock Video Footage 1
Zooxanthellae also promote polyp calcification by removing carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Under optimum conditions, this enhanced calcification builds the reef faster than it can be eroded by physical or biological factors.
Because of the need for light, corals containing zooxanthellae only live in ocean waters less than meters deep. They also only live in waters above 20 degrees Celsius and are intolerant of low salinity and high turbidity. Periphyton serves as an indicator of water quality because: It has a naturally high number of species. It has a fast response to changes. It is easy to sample.
Food source Many aquatic animals feed extensively on aufwuchs. The mbuna cichlids from Lake Malawi are particularly well known examples of fish adapted for feeding on aufwuchs.
Examples include Labeotropheus trewavasae and Pseudotropheus zebra. Symbiosis is commonly used as a method of defense. The symbionts select hosts with better defense mechanisms then they have.
What is the symbiotic relationship between pencil fish and seagrass
An example of this behavior exists between the Carrier Crab and Urchins. The Carrier Crab is highly creative in locating defenses. This species will carry urchins on their back for protection as it crosses the sea floor. The urchins prefer a solitary existence but are not harmed by this activity. Symbiosis is commonly used for the purpose of cleaning. This is where large fish will go to the places where symbionts, the cleaner shrimp and fish, live.
The cleaners pick off parasites, algae, and detritus from the larger fish, obtaining a meal from the cleaning process. This process helps maintain the health of many marine populations. There are some types of fish which even change color to indicate that they need to take place in the cleaning process, making external parasites stand out more against their skin. A perfect example of cleaning behavior is the Cleaner Shrimp and the Grouper.
Transportation is another way organisms use symbiosis. When one animal uses another for transportation, the symbiotic relationship is called phoresis. An example of this type of relationship exists between the Swimmer crab and Actinopyga. This is a commensally associated relationship between the urchin Actinopyga and the Swimmer Crab.
The Swimmer Crab benefits, receiving transportation and protection from the Actinopyga. Symbiosis is also used as a way for the symbionts to obtain food. Several different kinds of shrimp, crabs and copepods live on coral and other cnidarians surfaces creating commensally associated relationships. This activity does not harm the crustacean hosts. Organisms use symbiosis as a way of creating housing.
Endoecism refers to animals that live in the shelters created by their host. An example of this type of relationship exists between the Arrow Goby and crabs. The Arrow Goby can be found in the burrows of several invertebrates. They prefer crab holes, where they live and find food. They will feed on the wastes of the host, providing the role of housekeeper. At times the food they find is too large for them to eat so they give it to the crab, providing their host with meals.
This relationship also exists between the Goby and blind shrimp.