Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy
Perceived Self-Efficacy: People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects. A resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles . In expectancy-value theory, motivation is regulated by the expectation that a given . Perceived social inefficacy to develop satisfying and supportive relationships. perceived self-efficacy serves as a protective fact~r in adolescent resilience. Subsequently, this forms an ability to define the self in relation to societal . Based on the theory that not all social support is the same Colarossi and Eccles ( ). sample. The Perceived Selfefficacy Scale and the Resilience Questionnaire have limited Bandura () indicated that selfefficacy theory is based on the.
The incidences of anxiety and depression were The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy.
Psychological problems in patients with cardiovascular disease have attracted great attention 3.
As an important treatment for coronary heart disease, percutaneous coronary intervention PCI has a significant effect on improving myocardial ischemia caused by acute or persistent ischemia and hypoxia in coronary arteries 5 — 7. Since it is an invasive treatment, PCI is a serious stressful event for patients.
Several studies have shown that PCI patients have serious psychological problems, including high levels of anxiety and depression, strong disease uncertainty, and low self-evaluation, which can affect the health of patients 8 — However, with the rise of positive psychology, the study of mental health problems in AMI patients after PCI is no longer confined to negative psychological factors, but has expanded to positive psychological factors.
Psychological resilience and self-efficacy are two hot topics in this area. Psychological resilience is the ability of individuals to maintain their healthy and orderly development in the face of various unfavorable factors 12 — Studies have shown that for patients with coronary heart disease, the prognosis is better when patients have higher levels of mental flexibility The concept of self-efficacy was proposed by Bandura in on the basis of the surgery-related efficacy expectations The present study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of AMI patients after PCI and analyze the relationships of psychological resilience, self-efficacy with negative emotion, which would provide a theoretical reference for clinicians to develop practical measures.
Materials and Methods Participants Eighty-eight participants were recruited to participate in this study. All research protocols were explained to the participants, and they signed the written consent form approved by the local IRB Xiangya Hospital of Central South University of Hunan Province, Changsha, China before any examinations. Inclusion criteria were as follows: There were 74 males The questionnaire was issued on the third day after coronary stent implantation the day of the coronary stent implantation was the first day.
The respondents completed the questionnaire independently under the guidance of unified instruction, and the contents of the questionnaire were in accordance with their own actual situation and self-perception.
For patients with special circumstances who could not fill out the forms by themselves, the researchers read the questionnaire out loud sentence by sentence and wrote the answers on behalf of the patients after the patients made their choices. Survey Scale Self-compiled Questionnaire of General Situation The general situation questionnaire included age, sex, education, residence, average monthly family income, payment of medical expenses, other diseases or complications, the duration of coronary heart disease, the number of stent implantations, and the number of stents.
As is the case with general resilience, work focussing on academic resilience has led to the emergence of apparently distinct yet related concepts and constructs, each aiming to address a seemingly similar issue. Dweck'swork on mindset has led to the identification of two types of mindset, fixed and growth.
A fixed mindset describes individuals with fixed beliefs regarding their level of intelligence and ability, which they believe remain stable.
A growth mindset instead describes individuals who view their intelligence and ability simply as a basis for development and believe that challenges, including failure, are opportunities to develop their capacity for success through effort and practice. The influence of mindset is emphasized further by Snipes et al. Despite noted dissimilarities—Duckworth considers resilience to be only one factor explaining grit Perkins-Gough, —there are clear overlaps between academic resilience and the constructs proposed by Duckworth and Dweck, and their relevance is illustrated by Farrington et al.
Another construct, closely related to academic resilience, proposed by Martin and Marshis academic buoyancy.
Furthermore, Abiola and Udofia reported higher perceived stress, anxiety and depression in low resilience medical students following completion of a major professional examination. They discuss the value of resilience studies that identify differences between resilient and non-resilient students and that focus on alterable factors to design more effective educational interventions.
They suggest that focusing on educational resilience and those factors that can be altered to promote resilience may help address the gap in achievement between those students who are successful and those who are at risk of failure. Like WagnildWaxman et al. The potential for building resilience, together with Munro and Pooley's suggestion that resilience may mediate adversity and success in university students and Hamill's prioritizing of self-efficacy over other resilience factors, provides the major premise for the present study examining academic self-efficacy ASE as a factor influencing student responses to academic adversity.
Resilience and self-efficacy Waxman et al. Using class participation behavioral and enjoyment at school cognitive-affective as educational outcome constructs and general self-esteem global-affective as a psychological outcome construct, Martin and Marsh hypothesized that the outcome constructs were consequential to students' capacity to effectively deal with challenge, adversity and setbacks experienced in a school setting.
As hypothesized, academic resilience was the strongest—relative to the other five motivational and engagement factors—predictor of each of the outcome measures. Analysis to determine students' profiles according to academic resilience revealed that resilient students were high in self-efficacy, persistence and planning and low in anxiety and uncertain control.
Hamill also reported self-efficacy as an important characteristic that distinguished resilient and non-resilient 16—19 year old students.
The pursuit of those factors that distinguish resilient from non-resilient individuals and the promotion of resilience have been at the center of existing research in the field resilience Hamill, There is sufficient evidence indicating that self-efficacy is one resilience factor worthy of further study in this respect. In educational studies, individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have often been shown to be better predictors of performance than either previous achievement or ability Cassidy, Like resilience, self-efficacy is context specific and seems particularly important when individuals face adversity, when positive self-efficacy beliefs are associated with increased motivation and perseverance Bandura, ; Bandura et al.
Self-efficacy is considered to be the foundation of human agency Bandura et al. And whilst Bandura does describe how self-efficacy operates to contribute toward academic development—stating that students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation and academic accomplishment—there is a lack evidence-based detail accounting for exactly what high self-efficacious individuals do that impacts positively on academic outcomes; as noted by Hamilldespite an abundance of self-efficacy focussed research, relatively little work has examined how self-efficacy relates to resilient behaviors exhibited in response to adversity.
Present study Operationalizing academic resilience as students' cognitive-affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity, the present study seeks to establish examples of context-specific resilience factors and resilience responses to academic adversity.
Self-efficacy - Wikipedia
Self-efficacy has been identified as a key construct in previous studies examining factors affecting academic achievement e. What has not been clearly established in these studies are the specific responses of self-efficacious students to instances of academic adversity, when self-efficacy beliefs are particularly relevant because of their association with increased motivation and perseverance Bandura, and resistance to negative thought Ozer and Bandura, Hamill has explored this issue but using generalized measures of self-efficacy and coping responses in the context of general stressful life events in a small sample of 16—19 year old students—limitations which Hamil partly acknowledges.
Hamil reported an association between self-efficacy and resilience, adding support to the merits of the present study and its aim of uncovering differences in context-specific resilience responses adopted by self-efficacious and non-self-efficacious students, and the study's longer-term objective of promoting resilient responses in students.
Riley and Mastenp. The content of the case vignette was intended to represent adversity in a context-specific academic setting that undergraduate students would consider authentic despite its hypothetical nature. The vignette describes academic failure and its wider impact as an example of authentic adversity for students. Although there is some debate in the existing literature on the specific effects of, and perceptions of, negative feedback e.