Potassium and hypertension relationship

The Potassium & High Blood Pressure Connection | RESPeRATE-blog

potassium and hypertension relationship

The relationship between low potassium and high blood pressure remained significant even when age, race, and other cardiovascular risk. Dr. Berg takes about the relationship between insulin resistance, potassium and blood pressure. Blood pressure is a potassium deficiency, not. Foods that are rich in potassium are important in managing high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) because potassium lessens the effects of sodium. Potassium also helps to ease tension in your blood vessel walls, which helps further lower blood pressure. Increasing potassium.

How does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure?

Chang is employed by Exponent, Inc. Abstract The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research.

Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans.

Why potassium helps

This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations.

potassium and hypertension relationship

Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction.

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Future study in these populations is warranted. Introduction High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is 1 of the most well-known major risk factors for cardiovascular disease CVD 5 and stroke 1. Given the established relation between hypertension and CVD and stroke, 2 leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it is critical that simple yet effective interventions for reducing blood pressure be identified.

How does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure?

Potentially relevant indicators of CVD and stroke risk also include the renin-angiotensin system 34arterial stiffness 5 and the augmentation index 6and endothelial dysfunction 7. Dietary interventions, in particular those based on sodium or potassium intakes, have demonstrated their ability to reduce blood pressure in humans. Two recently published meta-analyses reported that lower sodium intake resulted in lower levels of blood pressure 910whereas a third meta-analysis reported that higher potassium consumption was associated with a reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive populations only Several mechanisms exist by which sodium and potassium can influence blood pressure, and evidence indicates that the interaction between these nutrients plays a dominant role in the development of primary hypertension Specifically, diets characteristic of the modern Western diet—which is high in sodium and low in potassium—produce a biologic interaction with the kidneys, resulting in excessive sodium and insufficient potassium concentrations in the human body; these biologic changes result in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction, followed by an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and higher blood pressure, and finally hypertension The influence of sodium or potassium intake on the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains under study 12 The joint effects of low sodium and high potassium intakes on blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors may be larger than the effects of either sodium or potassium alone 8 Up to the present date, no known systematic review has been undertaken to determine if the sodium-to-potassium ratio is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related risk factors for CVD than either sodium or potassium alone.

Na ratio on BP and cardiovascular disease mortality remain to be clearly elucidated. Their study aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of the antihypertensive effect of K supplementation by determining the effects on renal ion transporter abundance. The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to addresses a number of unexpected findings in the Jung et al. Providing a measure of actual intake would have been preferable.

How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure | American Heart Association

Along the same lines, providing kidney weight in the two groups would provide a measure of the impact of K supplementation on the renal hypertrophy occurring after uNx.

In comparison, Vallon et al. It is evident that the Carlstrom model of salt-sensitive hypertension generated by uninephrectomy plus a high-salt diet may be appropriate to investigate the BP-lowering effects of K supplementation. While it may turn out that uninephrectomy amplifies the magnitude of changes provoked by a high K intake, this study fails to provide a clear and quantitative explanation for how K loading reduces BP in the uNx model of salt-sensitive hypertension.

A more compelling case for these large changes in Na transporter abundance could be made by analyzing a full sample volume alongside a half-sample volume on the same blot to validate that the amount of protein analyzed is in the linear range of the detection system e.

potassium and hypertension relationship

The ninefold increase in ROMK expression warrants verification with another antibody probe. Finally, the immunohistochemistry analyses needs reevaluation if the intent is to validate the immunoblot changes: Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. N Engl J Med Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats. Effect of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality and medical expenses of elderly men.

potassium and hypertension relationship

Am J Clin Nutr The cardiovascular implications of hypokalemia. Am J Kidney Dis J Exp Med Ganguli M, Tobian L.