Project MUSE - Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Collaboration and Conflict in the Age of Diaspora The focus is on the relationships between these religious identities in global. Because Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all recognize Abraham as their first . Relationships between Jewish and Christian communities have often been. Judaism Christianity, and Islam, in contrast to Hinduism and Buddhism, of the Trinity or the relationship of Jesus' human and divine natures.
Jews did not, and on the whole still do not, view Christianity as a relationship that is to be appreciated apart from their view of other religions.
Abrahamic religions - Wikipedia
All precedents of a Jewish view of other religions formulated in the Middle Ages and the early modern period consider Christianity and Islam in the same breath. It is worth noting that differences between Islam and Christianity are not germane to this view. While Maimonides considers Christianity to be idolatrous and Islam non-idolatrous, this distinction is irrelevant to an appreciation of their historical role. The point here is that Christianity and Islam are considered in the same breath, when considering their historical significance.
The same is true for almost all rabbinic authorities Franz Rosenzweig provides an interesting exception to the rule. Positive references to other religions include both Christianity and Islam. Various obstacles must be overcome for Jews to be able to affirm a special relationship with Christianity. Historically, until Christians transformed their theology of Judaism, there was no room for such special status.
If anything, non-idolatrous Islam would be a better candidate for special relationship. Only after such obstacles are overcome can we consider the argument from scripture as a criterion one might apply in affirming a special relationship with Christianity.
The shared scriptural heritage may be appreciated and validated, nevertheless, without endowing a special relationship. Maimonides himself appeals to it by permitting the teaching of Torah to Christians, because they share our scriptures.
But the scriptural criterion is only one of several possible criteria for viewing another religion.
On the whole, Jewish attitudes privileged affirmation of pure monotheistic faith over shared scripture, thereby making the case for a special relationship with reference to Christianity much harder.
Christianity has therefore historically been appreciated only within the broad strokes that accommodate it alongside Islam, and not as holding a special relationship. Once we recognize that special relationship is something that has to be constructed, rather than a given, and an obvious outcome of certain historical data, we may revisit the question and ask: What conditions or circumstances might provide the will for affirming a special relationship with Christianity?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
The answer will be different, of course, for Jews and Christians. With the change in attitude towards Judaism comes a novel, positive appreciation of the relationship, leading to the affirmation of a special relationship.How Jesus Christ Is Depicted In Islam
If the affirmation of a special relationship requires will, most Jews lack it. Either due to the burden of history, or on account of theological differences or simply out of inertia, disinterest or lack of knowledge of advances in Jewish-Christian relations, most Jews lack the will needed to construct an argument for a special relationship.
And yet, there are those who are willing to make the effort and make the case for a special relationship. The statement speaks of partnering in a covenantal mission of healing the world and serving society.
The very fact that it addresses Christianity already establishes some kind of special relationship, which is further affirmed by the use of covenantal language as a way of speaking of both communities. It is theoretically possible that a statement such as this may be expanded, tomorrow, to include Islam or other religions. But it is being issued today, at a particular point in time and under a particular set of historical and social circumstances.
These suggest a special relationship between Judaism and Christianity. Affirmation of a special relationship need not be based on theological data only. While the continuity of scripture and recognition of the same God are primary candidates, there are other ways in which such a relationship may be singled out.
I surmise that, to a certain extent, such criteria also played into the recent statement by Orthodox rabbis. Jews and Christians are culturally closer to each other, at least in the Western world, than to other groups. Part of the cultural closeness is the very readiness to advance in mutual recognition and in improving inter-group relations. These factors are no less legitimate as data for making the case for a special relationship than theological criteria.
One could argue that they do not establish a special relationship between Judaism and Christianity, but only between Christians and Jews, but that is certainly also something that is worth affirming and for which a case must be made.
The contingency of any case for special relationship raises the question not only of when the argument can be made but also when it becomes unravelled. The growing prominence of Islam in the interreligious conversation in the West is one reason for developing alternative models.
Political circumstances in Israel might be another. Some Protestant groups may be seen as downplaying their relationship with Judaism as a consequence of political realities. The Israelites were initially a number of tribes who lived in the Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. After being conquered and exiled, some members of the Kingdom of Judah eventually returned to Israel. They later formed an independent state under the Hasmonean dynasty in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of the Roman Empirewhich also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants.
From the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews wrote the Talmuda lengthy work of legal rulings and Biblical exegesis which, along with the Tanakh, is a key text of Judaism. His followers viewed him as the Messiahas in the Confession of Peter ; after his crucifixion and death they came to view him as God incarnate who was resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead and create an eternal Kingdom of God.
Within a few decades the new movement split from Judaism. After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace vis a vis the Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire inbut has been split into various churches from its beginning. An attempt was made by the Byzantine Empire to unify Christendombut this formally failed with the East—West Schism of In the 16th century, the birth and growth of Protestantism further split Christianity into many denominations.
History of Islam The tomb of Abrahama cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran. Although it considers Muhammad to be the Seal of the prophetsIslam teaches that every prophet preached Islam, providing a historical back-story for the religion by independently recognizing Jewish and Christian prophets, and adding others. The teachings of Quran are presented as the direct revelation and words of Allah. Islam meaning "submission", in the sense of submission to God is universal membership is open to anyone ; like Judaism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called tawhidor "strict" or "simple" monotheism.
Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three.