behaviour and leadership styles (relationship and task-motivated styles) in a common Authoritative Conflict Management Style had significant relationships. The relationship between leadership and conﬂict management is one. of the variables frequently investigated (Alonso & Brugha, ; Altma. Conceptual Framework To carefully analyze the relationship of leadership to conflict management, a theoretical framework is presented in this literature review.
This chapter will contain the following parts: First section, concept and definitions of leadership style; Second section, measurement and characteristics of leadership style ; Third section, concept and definitions of conflict management ; fourth section, measurement and characteristics of conflict management Fifth section leadership style link to conflict management sixth section: Concept and definitions of leadership style Although leadership has been conceptualized from various perspectives, according to Northouse central to all the conceptualizations are the following characteristics: Leadership is a process that involves influence; and 2.
Leadership occurs in groups and involves common goals and purpose. Leadership is not tantamount to management although they both share some common characteristics. For instance, they are both concerned with influence, working with people and meeting goals Northouse, However, the functions of management may be distinguished from those of leadership. In particular, management is concerned with planning and budgeting e. On the other hand, leadership involves establishing a direction e.
Despite these differing functions, leaders are also involved in planning and organizing tasks in order to get the job done i. In the present study the leadership styles undertaken for the research are the ones proposed by Reddin who developed a manager behavior model consisting of eight styles, which are: Deserter leadership style is uninvolved and passive.
Missionary style of leader is primarily interested in harmony. Autocrat leadership style shows no confidence in others, feels unpleasant, and is interested only in the immediate job at hand.
These leaders direct orders to their associates and usually keep decisions and controls to themselves because they have assumed full responsibility for decision making. Compromiser style leader is a poor decision maker who is over influenced by the pressures of work, who minimizes immediate pressures and problems. Bureaucrat is primarily interested in rules and procedures for their own sake. They want to maintain and control situations by their conscientious enforcements. Developer leadership style trusts people, and is concerned with developing them as individuals.
Leadership & Conflict Management: A Review of the Literature | Pamela McClinton - webob.info
This style assumes that individual members of a group who take part personally in the decision-making process will have greater commitment to the objectives and goals of the organization. Benevolent Autocrat knows what he wants from the people, situations and how to get things completed in his way without causing resentment.
Executive is a good motivator who sets high standards, treats everyone differently, and prefers team management. The participative style presents a happy medium between over controlling micromanaging and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper.
Some styles overlap i.
Below is a detailed description of all these style. Leadership styles Leadership style plays an important role in shaping the behaviour and attitudes of employees in and organization. Reinke identifies four leadership styles and stresses that each style has a fundamental foundation and that most leaders practice some form of leadership or a combination of styles during their normal work routine.
Autocratic Leadership Style Autocratic leaders limit self-determination and autonomy and push followers to accept the their ideas. Such leadership decrease subordinates sense of control and goal striving and increase powerlessness.
Autocratic leaders are in complete control as they push their followers to conform to their image. They leave little room for free thought. Although not a popular approach to leadership there are situations when it is most suitable, for when an organization is in a crisis and followers require clear and concise direction. Bureaucratic Leadership Style is commonly defined as one that emphasizes procedures.
It is the use of rules, policies, hierarchy of authority, written documentation, standardization, and other bureaucratic mechanisms to standardize behavior and assess performance Brian Bureaucratic leaders are motivated by the need to control through documentation.
Followers are merely instruments used to create bureaucracy within the organization as well as understand the procedures they write. Bureaucratic leaders produce followers that do only what is expected and nothing more. Reinke Democratic Leadership Style has been called a participative style because it suggests that leaders allow followers to participate in the management process.
There are times when allowing followers to participate in management decisions can cause some democratic leaders to fear losing control.
Richard suggests in democratic leadership, the role of the leader is not just solving problems but more importantly is to identify the conditions for effective solutions.
Democratic leaders are motivated by highly skilled and experienced employees who are not afraid to express their opinions. This style, sometimes called autocratic do what I tell youis used when leaders tell their followers what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without input or advice from their followers.
The leader identifies a problem, considers alternative solutions, chooses one, and then tells others what to do. Subordinates neither participate in the decision making process, nor are they consulted in the matter until after the decision is made. Often the leader will then try to persuade them to accept it. This is frequently used as a primary method of managers.
It would be suitable to use also with an individual who is just learning the job, and is motivated to learn a new skill. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abuse of power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around, which has no place in a leader's repertoire.
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions, and often is unproductive in a volunteer situation. If a leader has the time and wants to gain more Commitment and motivation from others, then the democratic style should be used.
Traits of democratic leadership and situations where this style of leadership is effective: With this style, also called participative, Let's work together to solve this the leader includes one or more other individuals in the decision making process to determine what to do and how to do it. However, the responsibility and authority for making the final decision remains with the leader.
Using this style is not a sign of weakness but rather a sign of strength which others will respect. The leader presents the problem to the group, requesting ideas on how to solve it. After hearing the group's viewpoints And suggestions, the leader makes the decision.
This is normally used when the leader has part of the information, and other folks may Have other parts or ideas. A leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why a Successful leader will make use of knowledgeable and skillful unit members to produce a solution to a problem or a decision on a job. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it Allows others to become part of the team and allows the leader to make better Decisions.
This style is also appropriately used with a group of individuals who know their jobs and Want to become part of the team. The leader knows the problem, but may not have all The information.
This style is most likely to be effective, more often than not, with Volunteers. Leadership styles can be thought of as falling along two dimensions: No business leader acts purely along one dimension, but favoring certain behaviors and approaches to management gives a leader dominance in one dimension or the other.
LEADERSHIP STYLES AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT | Hassan Ga,al Alasow - webob.info
Business owners and managers should aim to develop their non-dominant dimension because no one style is right for all situations. Task-Oriented Styles The autocratic and transactional leadership styles fall along the task-oriented dimension.
The transaction refers to the employment agreement: The employer agrees to pay an employee in exchange for work.
The manager motivates employees through reward and punishment. This style accomplishes the work but leaves little room for innovative performance.
Autocratic leadership is closely related to the transactional style, with command and obedience included in the transaction. Autocratic leadership is appropriate in organizations such as the military.
People-Oriented Styles Along the people-oriented dimension, employees play some role in decision-making processes. In the participative style, the leader receives input from employees regarding potential courses of action, and then makes the final decisions.
The laissez-faire leadership style delegate power to employees, who have a lot of latitude to act independently.
In these styles, employees must be well- trained and knowledgeable to provide legitimate contributions. Transformational leadership adheres to a vision of what a company and its people can become.
Employee development promotes achievement. The leader provides inspiration to workers, who are expected to give their best in service to the vision. Conflict management refers to the modes used by either or both parties to cope with a conflict. Adler and Towne identified three possible courses of actions when faced with a conflict: Three types of outcomes result from these approaches to conflict management: Conflict management research focus is centered primarily on the conflict situation and the person—situation interaction Knapp et al.
However, there is a reason to believe that conflict behavior is determined by both situational and dispositional influences Sandy et al. The theoretical framework of this study rests on the work of Thomas and Kilmann Their two- dimensional framework and five predominant modes are used to define conflict management modes. Internal consistency coefficients are in moderate range with average a-coefficient 0. The findings suggest that the instrument is able to differentiate between conflict management styles.
Thomas suggested the dimensions of Assertiveness and Cooperativeness in classifying his five modes: Conflict resolution represents the one-best-way longterm approach, which emphasizes that contextual variables are changeable and that the ideal organization should be brought nearer by all manner of means. Because leaders guide, direct and often inspire their employees or teams, followers may instinctively look to their direction when conflicts occur.
A review of the current literature reveals a synthesis on conflict management styles. Most leaders employ one of five specific styles to manage conflict: Through the research that was shown in this literature review, conflict appears to be inevitable. Conflict also was shown to occur because of differences in goals or the means to accomplishing or completing goals.
With a vast array of reasons for conflict to arise, individuals will most likely encounter or experience conflict in their lives, in organizational settings, especially on teams.Leadership and Conflict within Organizations
Because conflict will occur, management of conflict appears to be the best solution to de-escalate situations so that they do not become worse. In this review, a variety of reasons were given to support the management of conflict, particularly maintenance of human relationships. Leaders appear to have an important role in conflict situations. While leaders may be directly involved in conflict or simply intervening, using conflict handling management styles provide guidance on successfully reducing or de-escalating conflict situations.
A majority of the researchers of the literature reviewed in this paper found that conflict management styles were effective in resolving conflict. Of the five conflict management handling styles: The integrating style of conflict handling involves focusing on shared goals, information exchange, and open communication to bring conflicts to resolution.
Thus, an answer to the initial research question can be found.
Conclusion In conclusion, businesses will encounter conflict. Conflict, however, does not have to cause inefficiency, unproductivity and dissatisfied employees. Corporate integrity and company-community conflict management in the niger delta region of nigeria. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 8 3 Testing relationships between personality, conflict styles and effectiveness.
International Journal of Conflict Management, 21 4 Retrieved October 1,from http: Intra-group conflict and teamwork quality: The moderating role of leadership styles. Administrative Sciences, 1 1 The impacts of leadership on workplace conflicts. International Journal of Conflict Management, 20 4 Affective choice of conflict management styles.
International Journal of Conflict Management, 23 1 Leaders' fairness and followers' conflict handling style: The moderating role of need for cognitive closure.
International Journal of Conflict Management, 22 4 Risk factors for interpersonal conflicts at work. Navigating toward effective and efficient team outcomes.