Vijayanagara architecture - Wikipedia
Explain the key traits inherent to the sculpture of the Vijayanagar Empire . (the marriage of Parvati, Shiva's consort) in the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi; the. However, for the superstructures, the Vijayanagara architects preferred the brick and mortar and stucco carvings. The change in the building tradition, not. architectural and sculptural excellence also attracted the visitors from far and near. Hence The Vijayanagara rulers took interest in constructing huge temples in .. and public relations.4 They were attached to temples for specific purpose.
This Tamil dravida-influenced style became popular during the rule of king Krishnadevaraya and is seen in South Indian temples constructed over the next years. In addition to these structures, medium-size temples have a closed circumambulatory Pradakshinapatha passage around the sanctum, an open mahamantapa large halla kalyanamantapa ceremonial hall and a temple tank to serve the needs of annual celebrations. The horses on some pillars stand seven to eight feet tall. On the other side of the pillar are usually carvings from Hindu mythology.
Some pillars have a cluster of smaller pillars around a central pillar shaft. The bottom supports of these pillars have engravings of Gods and Goddesses. Carvings of hippogryphs clearly show the adroitness of the artists who created them. The 1,pillared Jain basadi at Mudabidri is an example. Larger temples have a separate shrine for the female deity.
Some shrines in the Vitthalapura area inside Vijayanagara were consecrated specifically for Tamil Alwar saints and for the great Vaishnava saint, Ramanujacharya. Architecturally they are different in that each shrine has an image depicting the saint for whose worship the temple was built.
Each shrine has its own enclosure and a separate kitchen and pilgrim feeding hall. The stepped tank is fashioned with finished chlorite schist slabs arranged in a symmetrical formation with steps and landings descending to the water on all four sides. Krishnadevaraya built a temple dedicated to Lord Krishna. He renovated several temples. The most important was the temple of Hazara Rama. The royal family worshipped there. They have beautiful sculptures carved on them. The deities on the pillars represent Vishnu, Lakshminarayana, Krishna, Brahma and others.
Scenes from the lipics are depicted on the outer walls of the shrine.
A number of temples were built during the medieval period in the South cities of Vellore, Kumbhakonam, Kalahsti, Srirangam, Conjeevam and Virinchipuram were dotted with magnificent temples. The temples of Vithala and Pattabhirama also deserve mention. We will also see Buddhist and Jain architecture.
Basic form of a Hindu temple When you browse our earlier articles on Hindu Temple Architecture, you would realize one thing. It was a gradual evolution starting from the rock cut- cave temples to monolithic rathas which finally culminated in structural temples. The basic form of a Hindu structural temple consists of the following. In the earliest temples, it was a small cubical structure with a single entrance.
Art and Architecture under the Vijayanagar Rulers
Later it grew into a larger complex. The Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon main deity which is itself the focus of much ritual attention. It is the entrance to the temple.
It may be a portico or colonnaded series of columns placed at regular intervals hall that incorporates space for a large number of worshippers. Dances and such other entertainments are practiced here.
Art and Architecture under the Vijayanagar Rulers
Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named as Ardhamandapa, Mandapa, and Mahamandapa. They are mountain like the spire of a free-standing temple. Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal-like structure. It is a stone disc like structure at the top of the temple and they are common in North Indian temples.
It is the topmost point of the temple and commonly seen in North Indian temples. It is a raised platform for sitting and praying and is common in North Indian temples. Classification of Indian Temples Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as Nagara in North India Dravida in South India At times, the Vesara style of temples as an independent style created through the mixing of Nagara and Dravida orders.
Sculptures, Iconography, and Ornamentation Iconography is a branch of art history which studies the images of deities. It consists of identification of image based on certain symbols and mythology associated with them. Even though the fundamental myth and meaning of the deity may remain the same for centuries, its specific usage at a spot can be a response to its local or immediate social, political or geographical context.
Every region and period produce its own distinct style of images with its regional variations in iconography. The temple is covered with elaborate sculptures and ornament that form a fundamental part of its conception.
The placement of an image in a temple is carefully planned: Various forms or aspects of the main divinity are to be found on the outer walls of the sanctum. Subsidiary shrines around the main temple are dedicated to the family or incarnations of the main deity. It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it.
Earliest temples had only one shikhara towerbut in the later periods, multiple shikharas came. The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower.
Nagara temples can be subdivided mainly into three — based on the shikhara type. It is the simple and most common type of shikhara.
It is square at the base and the walls curve or slopes inwards to a point on top. Latina types are mainly used for housing the garbhagriha. Later on, the Latina buildings grew complex, and instead of appearing like a single tower, the temple began to support many small towers, which were clustered together like rising mountain type with the tallest one being in the centre, and this was the one which was always above the garbhagriha.
They are broader and shorter than Latina type. Their roof is composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the centre of the building, unlike the Latina ones which look like sharply rising towers. Phamsana roofs do not curve inwards; instead, they slope upward on a straight incline.
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In many north Indian temples, the phamsana type is used for mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a Latina building. These are rectangular buildings with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber. The edge of the vaulted chamber is round, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times. The form of this temple is influenced by ancient building forms that were already in existence.
We can also classify the Nagara Temples on the basis of region as follows: Central India In the later periods, the temples grew from simple four pillared structures to a large complex. This means that similar developments were incorporated in the architecture of temples of both the religions. Two such temples that survive are; temple at Udaygiri which is on the outskirts of Vidisha it is a part of a large Hindu temple complex and a temple at Sanchi, which was a Buddhist site.
The early temples were modest looking shrines each have four pillars that support a small mandapa before an equally small room that served as garbhagriha.
Some of the oldest surviving structural temples of Gupta period are in Madhya Pradesh. The ancient temple sin UP, MP and Rajasthan share many traits and the most visible is that they are made of Sandstone. Even though the patrons and donors of the temple are unknown, it is believed that this temple was built in the early 6th century CE.
This is a classical example of the late Gupta period. This temple is in the Panchayatana style of architecture. In fact, it is not actually known to whom the four subsidiary shrines were originally dedicated. The grand doorway of the west facing temple west facing is less common has the sculptures of Ganga on the left and Yamuna on the right side.
Temples at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh: The temples were patronized by Chandela kings. We can see how dramatically the shape and style of the nagara temple architecture had developed. The temples at Khajuraho are all made of Sandstone.
The largest temple at Khajuraho is the Kandariya Mahadeva temple which is attributed to king Ganda. The Lakshmana temple dedicated to Vishnu was built in by Chandela king, Dhanga. The crowning element Kalasha and Amalaka are to be found on all nagara temples of this period. Many Hindu temples, therefore feature Mithuns embracing couples-erotic sculptures sculptures, considered auspicious. Khajuraho sculptures are highly stylized with typical features. There are many temples at Khajuraho, most of them dedicated to Hindu gods.Architectural Achievements during Vijayanagara Empire- A Talk By Ratnakar Sadasyula
There are some Jain temples as well as a Chausanth Yogini temple. Chausanth Yogini is a temple of small square shrines dedicated to esoteric devis or goddesses associated with the rise of Tantric worship after the 7th [Khajuraho dance festival is organized by MP Kalaparishad and is one week long first week of February festival of classical dances celebrated annually against the spectacular backdrop of Khajuraho] West India There are too numerous temples in the northwestern parts of India, including Gujarat and Rajasthan, and stylistically extendable, at times, to western Madhya Pradesh.
The stones to build temples ranges in colour and type. While sandstone is the commonest, a grey to black basalt can be seen in some of the 10th to 12th-century temple sculptures. The most exuberant and famed are the manipulatable soft white marble which is also seen in some of the 10th to 12th-century Jain temples in Mount Abu and the 15th-century temple at Ranatpur.
Among the most important art, historical sites in the region are Samlaji in Gujarat. It shows how earlier artistic traditions of the region mixed with a post-Gupta style and gave rise to a distinct style of sculpture. A large number of sculptures made of grey schist have been found in this region. Sun temple, Modhera, Gujarat: The temple dates back to the early 11th century and was built by Raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki dynasty.
The Solanks were a branch off later Chalukyas. There is a massive rectangular stepped tank called Surya Kund in front of it.
The hundred square metre rectangular pond is perhaps the grandest temple tank in India. A hundred and eight miniature shrines are carved in between the steps inside the tank. A huge ornamental arch-torana leads one to the sabha mandapa the assembly hall which is open on all sides, as was the fashion of the times in western and central India temples.