relationship between personality traits of customers and personality and brand loyalty. The . Identity is a set of human characteristics associated with a brand. Why do Gap brand jeans appeal to people who seek intimacy in relationships? It may be a result of their upbringing. According to a new study. Studies have explore the relationship between brand personality and brand This study of relationship between human personality and brand only gives an.
The underlying structure has been shown to be stable among age, sex and ethnic groups. This has allowed authors to claim the universality of the model McCrae and Costa, In spite of differences in education, social structures, religions and language itself, it seems that all individuals can be described and differentiated along th five basic personality dimensions.
However, in spite of a large international agreement about the hierarchical representation of personality, it is also argued that the proposed personality traits do not encompass all levels or domains of human personality that ought to be considered to give an appropriate representation of the complexity of personality and of human beings Block, Relying on sole measurement of individual differences, the big five factor model ignores two other main areas belonging to psychology of personality: Furthermore, other questions remain unanswered in the study of human personality traits.
If traits describe recurrent ways of thinking, affects and behaviors, they do not describe the underlying mechanisms through which durable dispositions find a concrete expression in particular situations. Even the most ardent defenders of the five factor model concede that interpretation of the five dimension is a difficult task McCrae and John, The number of factors itself remains a debated question: Researchers seem to agree on a sole dimension, that of extraversion, although definitions thereof might vary.
The biggest debate pertains to the Openness dimension: Is there not a hierarchical level above the five factors Digman, ? Are there no other personality dimensions or is it that they are simply not uncovered through etic measurements performed in different cultures?
McCrae and Costa, ? In spite of the impressive number of studies conducted in psychology aimed at conceptualizing and measuring the structure of human personality, no parallel research has been conducted in the field of consumer behavior before the seminal contribution of Aakernor has it been debated within the Association Consumer Research before Aaker and Fournier, Practitioners view brand personality as a means of differentiation within a product category and as an important factor affecting preference Biel, as well as a common denominator allowing to market a brand across different cultures Plummer, The brand personality concept has also been severely criticized: B From a conceptual standpoint, what brand personality really is remains ambiguous.
How should it be defined? How and when is it different than brand image or than the image of the brand buyer?
B From a methodological standpoint, how should brand personality be best measured? Should traditional qualitative studies be employed or should adjective lists of human personality inventories be used? B Finally, from a managerial standpoint, what are the consequences of the acquisition of a personality for a brand and what marketing activities create or alter it? Aaker proposed a theoretical model of the brand personality concept through the determination of the number and the nature of its dimensions.
Acknowledging the lack of consensus concerning the definition of the construct and its underlying dimensions, Aaker defines brand personality as "the set of human characteristics associated with a brand". The model developed by Aaker is based on a hierarchical approach similar to that McCrae and Costa Aaker identifies 42 traits and five brand personality factors: This scale has been shown to be quite stable across different cultural contexts as France Ferradi, et al.
Two other methods have been proposed to measure brand personality. Caprara, Barbaranelli and Guido used a lexical approach to identify main attributes or markers of brand personality.
Their approach is based on the hypothesis that main personality traits of products, services or brands are encoded in natural language daily used by individuals. Allen and Olson used a narrative approach to understand antecedents and consequences of brand personality.
They consider that brand personality is the set of meanings that best describe fundamental brand characteristics.
These meanings are constructed by consumers based on behaviors seen in brands when they are personified or based on their attributes.
Although the concepts of human and brand personalities might be similar, both constructs are different in their antecedents and in the roles they play. Human personality traits are created and communicated to others via attitudes, behaviors or physical characteristics Park, They are thus inferred directly by others.
By contrast, perception of brand personality traits is inferred through direct or indirect contact that consumers have with brands. Brand are inanimate objects which are associated with personality traits through marketing communications Plummer, Managers rely on the image of the typical brand user or the set of human characteristics that consumers associate with the typical user, on endorsement by celebrities as Michael Jordan, Anna Kournikova or Tiger Woodson product attributes, symbols, logos and slogans or any means of personification to develop the associations of brand personality Batra et al.
Contrarily to product attributes which are mainly functional, brand personality tends to have a symbolic function and one of self-expression Keller, Brand personality and human personality share indeed similarities: Managerial implications are important mainly in terms of positioning and communication strategies.
- Parsing a Brand
- Brand Personality Incarnate
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For this first test, we have used a convenience sample and have studied a limited set of brands on the French market well-known to the respondents.
Sample The sample is a convenience sample composed undergraduate students in a major University in the southeastern part of France.
The Psychology of Brand Personality
This sample should be no threat to the validity of the research results since Saucier proved the stability of results across different groups of individuals including students. The sample has been divide into 4 groups. Each group was asked to evaluate: Swatch watchesBenetton clothesOrangina non alcoholic beverages and Desperados beer for the first group, Danette dessert puddingPetit Ecolier cookiesLevis jeans and Lee Cooper jeans for the second group, Nike sportswearAdidas sportswearNescafT coffee and Carte Noire coffee for the third group, and Perrier mineral waterBadoit mineral waterRenault cars and BMW cars for the last group.
Validation of the Personality Scale Structure In order to test the personality scale developed by Saucier in a French context, we have followed the recommendations of Churchill and the procedures used in cross-cultural research Marchetti et Usunier, The methodology followed for both human and brand personality is threefold.
In the first step the 40 original items were translated and back-translated by an interpreting company and done independently by two translators. Individuals differences were solved jointly by both translators.
In the second stage we tested the scale structure. Based on the results obtained after performing principal component factor analysis with promax rotation, an iterative procedure allowed to purify the measurements through successive elimination of items ill-represented of the factors communality inferior to 0. Lastly, in the third stage, validity of scale structure was tested by means of trait validity performed through a confirmatory factor analysis, results of which were validated via a systematic bootstrap procedure.
Trait validity was tested through convergent validity, discriminant validity and a reliability index. A dimension exhibits good convergent validity if the t tests associated to each of the factorial weights related to the measurements of the construct are greater than 2. Following Fornell and Lackerto this criterion can be added the computation of mean variance extracted. Discriminant validity is judged satisfactory if the model in which correlation between the different latent variables is free gives better results than the model in which the correlations are fixed to 1.
The difference in the Khi-squares of the two models must be significant, taken into account the difference in degrees of freedom. Beyond both validity indexes, reliability of scales must be assessed. Congruence analysis Congruence analysis Chan et al. This analysis estimates the quality of the adjustment between two sets of points having hypothesized a correspondence between them.
It forces data to conform, as well as possible, to a predetermined structure. Thus, procruste rotation adjusts a configuration of N points in M dimensions the target configuration to another equivalent configuration the fixed configuration through a rotation which minimizes the distance between the points of the two configurations. Results obtained are the factorial coordinates after rotation and the procruste correlation coefficient which is a measure of the adjustment between both configurations.
To conclude that both scales exhibit the same factorial structure, correlation between each corresponding dimensions must be greater than 0.
A systematic bootstrap procedure allows to validate results. Alignment between internal and external dimensions is the mark of a truly authentic brand. And brand authenticity fosters deep and meaningful relationships between a brand and its customers. Parsing a Brand Brand personality has been approached from many different angles over the years—some superficial, others more profound.
The Psychology of Brand Personality
In our treating of a brand as a person, we like to draw on proven behavioral science, parlaying decades of human psychological research as it correlates to brands. Its characteristics are how a brand is perceived by those it interacts with.
They are its outward, most readily observable attributes. Apple, for example, embodies characteristics like sleek, modern, minimalist, and stark.
Its behaviors are how a brand acts within the context of the world around it. Red Bull is adventuresome, risk-taking, bold, and invigorated. Character and behavior are markers of deeper psychological truths, though. They signify how a person or a brand thinks and feels about the world. Just as with people, some brands are more emotionally driven—motivated by passion or zeal. And some are more intelligently driven—inspired by rational analysis and logical insight.
As you might imagine, the quintessentially emotion-driven brand looks and feels a lot different than its intelligence-driven counterpart. But such a scenario would unfortunately be as unreliable as it is unrealistic. Like nearly every other element of brand strategy, the core attributes of brand personality must be based on the outcome of comprehensive brand research.
Brand Personality Incarnate One way to think about brand personality is as the manifestation of the various attributes of brand self. There are three primary areas we can look to for markers of brand personality: It comprises its logocolor palette, typography, photography, collateral, etc.How to Determine Brand Personality
It is the overarching look and feel that becomes indistinguishable from a truly authentic brand. When I say Coca-Cola, what color comes to mind?