House of Tudor | Lady Jane Grey
The Nine Days Queen was pronounced monarch on July 10th, Edward VI, and her ambitious parents, hoping to marry her to Edward one day, paid Northumberland persuaded the dying Edward to declare Mary and Elizabeth . By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Key facts about Lady Jane Grey who was born October 15, , including biography, historical timeline and links to the British royal family tree. regent to the young King wanted Edward to marry Elizabeth daughter of Henry II of France. Edward died on 6 July and Northumberland had Lady Jane Grey proclaimed. Lady Jane Grey. Born: Died: 12 February Regnal titles. Preceded by. Edward VI, — DISPUTED — Queen of England.
However, his actual involvement in decisions has long been a matter of debate, and during the 20th century, historians have presented the whole gamut of possibilities, "balanc[ing] an articulate puppet against a mature, precocious, and essentially adult king", in the words of Stephen Alford.
Edward chose the members himself. Careful to make sure he always commanded a majority of councillors, he encouraged a working council and used it to legitimatise his authority.
Lacking Somerset's blood-relationship with the king, he added members to the Council from his own faction in order to control it. He also added members of his family to the royal household. Inhe signed a peace treaty with France that agreed to withdrawal from Boulogne and recalled all English garrisons from Scotland.
To forestall future rebellions, he kept permanent representatives of the crown in the localities, including lords lieutenantwho commanded military forces and reported back to central government.
Byconfidence in the coinage was restored, prices fell, and trade at last improved. Though a full economic recovery was not achieved until Elizabeth's reign, its origins lay in the Duke of Northumberland's policies. Lambeth PalaceLondon. In the matter of religion, the regime of Northumberland followed the same policy as that of Somerset, supporting an increasingly vigorous programme of reform.
The man Edward trusted most, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, introduced a series of religious reforms that revolutionised the English church from one that—while rejecting papal supremacy—remained essentially Catholic, to one that was institutionally Protestant.
The confiscation of church property that had begun under Henry VIII resumed under Edward—notably with the dissolution of the chantries —to the great monetary advantage of the crown and the new owners of the seized property. Reformed doctrines were made official, such as justification by faith alone and communion for laity as well as clergy in both kindsof bread and wine.
In the fourth line, he altered "L Janes heires masles" to "L Jane and her heires masles" Lady Jane and her male heirs. Inner Temple LibraryLondon. In FebruaryEdward VI became ill, and by June, after several improvements and relapses, he was in a hopeless condition. My devise for the Succession 1. For lakke of issu [masle inserted above the line, but afterwards crossed out] of my body [to the issu masle above the line cumming of thissu femal, as i have after declared inserted, but crossed out].
To the L Franceses heires masles, [For lakke of erased] [if she have any inserted] such issu [befor my death inserted] to the L' Janes [and her inserted] heires masles, To the L Katerins heires masles, To the L Maries heires masles, To the heires masles of the daughters wich she shal haue hereafter. Then to the L Margets heires masles. For lakke of such issu, To th'eires masles of the L Janes daughters. To th'eires masles of the L Katerins daughters, and so forth til yow come to the L Margets [daughters inserted] heires masles.
If after my death theire masle be entred into 18 yere old, then he to have the hole rule and gouernauce therof. But if he be under 18, then his mother to be gouuernres til he entre 18 yere old, But to doe nothing w'out th'auise and agremet inserted of 6 parcel of a counsel to be pointed by my last will to the nombre of If the mother die befor th'eire entre into 18 the realme to be gouuerned by the cousel Prouided that after he be 14 yere al great matters of importaunce be opened to him.
If i died w'out issu, and there were none heire masle, then the L Fraunces to be reget altered to gouuernres. For lakke of her, the her eldest daughters,4 and for lakke of them the L Marget to be gouuernres after as is aforsaid, til sume heire masle be borne, and then the mother of that child to be gouuernres.
And if during the rule of the gouuernres ther die 4 of the counsel, then shal she by her letters cal an asseble of the counsel w'in on month folowing and chose 4 more, wherin she shal haue thre uoices. But after her death the 16 shal chose emong themselfes til th'eire come to 18 erased 14 yeare olde, and then he by ther aduice shal chose them" Many foreign rulers proposed marriage to Elizabeth, her answer was always the same In this way she kept her suitors at bay, never intending to marry any of them.
She would later say, "My husband is my country, England. Not knowing exactly what to do with her, Elizabeth placed Mary under house arrest. Years later inwhile still under house arrest, a man named Babington started a plot to assassinate Elizabeth, and place Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic, on the throne of England. Mary Queen of Scots, was discovered as part of this plot, sending secret messages to Babington in wine barrels delivered to her home. Mary was tried and executed by beheading inat Fotheringhay Castle.
As a consequence of the execution of the Catholic leader, Mary, Spain launched an all-out attack on England. Inthe Spanish Armada, a navy containing warships, arrived in the English channel. Rough seas, and the excellent strategy by the English leader, Frances Drake, who used fireships ships intentionally set on firesaw the Spanish Armada almost totally destroyed. What was left of Spain's navy limped back to Spain, and England now was the new superpower of Europe.
As this all happened on Elizabeth's "watch," she was seen as a very popular leader. Elizabeth was sometimes called "Gloriana," which meant "good queen Bess. Shakespeare would go on to write some of the greatest titles in English literature.
Shakespeare's plays are still enjoyed today, because of the emotions they invoke. Inthe Globe Theater opened in London, and featured many of Shakespeare's plays. Elizabeth died in at Richmond Palace, never having married. Although the Tudor Dynasty came to an end, Elizabeth left a lasting legacy. She had established England as a world power, increased trade and colonization, and had seen an English Renaissance, through the works of William Shakespeare.
Elizabeth I has gone down in history as one of England's most successful monarchs. She proved, beyond a doubt, that a queen regnant could rule effectively. By clicking on any links the user is leaving the Penfield School District website, the district is not responsible for any information associated with these links.
But he believed that a quick coup, eliminating all opposition, was the key to success. So he had to get hold of Mary and Elizabeth. Mary, the daughter of Katharine of Aragon, was much-loved by the English people. Did Mary understand the importance of this support? They were accurate for Dudley wanted to remain in her good graces as long as possible.
She set out from Hunsdon an old palace in Hertfordshire but had not traveled far before a message reached her — the summons was a trap. Mary, oddly for her, acted decisively and immediately turned back. With half a dozen attendants, she went to Kenninghall in East Anglia. She had friends there and, if need be, would be near the coast and safety in the Spanish Netherlands. When he realized she had fled, Dudley sent his son Robert after her. The next day, of course, Jane was proclaimed queen.
But it was on that day that the Council received a letter from Mary. It was hardly reassuring for Mary. Also, her old allies, the Spanish envoys, were not responding to her desperate pleas for help. Jane spent little time with her lords during her nine days as queen. He was the one who met with the council, he was the one who wanted to capture Mary Tudor; he was the one tried to shore up their perilous situation.
When they fell from power, Jane never protested or attempted another coup. One can imagine that she felt relieved to be simply Lady Jane Grey again.
Dudley spent the nine days attempting to strengthen their position. It was imperative to capture Mary; when that failed, he needed to at least track her movements.
If he could reach her potential supporters first, there was a chance he could sway them to his side. But he worked well under pressure, leaving Jane to fight domestic battles with her husband and mother-in-law. Elizabeth, meanwhile, remained in the country. She was no admirer of her half-sister Mary but knew that if Jane Grey was recognized as queen, her own claim to the crown was forfeit.
So she chose the safest course — she remained quiet, neither supporting nor rejecting Jane. Like all of England and most of Europe, she was watching and waiting. But Dudley knew the issue would not be settled so easily.
It would be decided on the field of battle. He was an experienced soldier and determined to succeed. So he ordered a muster on 12 July at Tothill Fields, offering 10 pence a day as pay a very high rate. He realized that most of his hold on the council was based on personal intimidation.
But the queen would not hear of it. Since the queen was so distraught, they argued, it would be better for Dudley to command the army. After all, he was a great soldier, renowned for his defeat of the rebels in East Anglia that triumph had begun his rise to power.
On 13 July he had his personal armor delivered and appointed a retinue to meet him at Durham Place. Afterwards, he addressed the councilors for the last time. They were to send reinforcements to meet him at Newmarket, he said, for he and his companions would need much support. They were leaving their wives and children behind, trusting in the loyalty of the council.
And, Dudley warned, if any man thought to betray him or the queen, their punishment would be eternal. Therefore herein your doubt is too far cast. It was not an auspicious beginning. Dudley did not trust the lords so he sent his cousin Henry Dudley on a secret mission to France that day, promising Calais and Ireland in exchange for immediate military assistance. He did not tell the lords of this; nor did they tell him they were meeting secretly with the Imperial ambassadors.
A report arrived that Buckinghamshire had declared Mary to be queen but Mary herself was still unsure. She retreated from Kenninghall to Framlingham Castle, nearer the coast. She sent an urgent message to the Imperial envoys; if her cousin Charles V did not help her, she was doomed. In the midst of this confusion and treachery, Dudley had assembled an army of three thousand.
Norwich, one of the wealthiest towns in England, declared Mary queen, as did Colchester, Devon, and Oxfordshire. Meanwhile, the loyal towns were sending money, men, and supplies. Once the news had reached London that the ships had deserted Dudley, the councilors decided to save themselves. Jane suspected one of the lords possibly Winchester, the lord treasurer of trying to leave the city. But she must have realized the futility of it all. She was just a teenage girl, inexperienced and frightened.
It was simply a question of waiting for the end. On the 18th of July, most of her councilors had left the Tower on the pretext of visiting the French ambassador. In reality, they were planning a visit to the Imperial embassy. But now they were free and determined to proclaim Mary queen of England.
London erupted into a joyous celebration. The foreign ambassadors were astonished, with the French envoy writing: Jane was terribly frightened.
He came to Jane as she ate supper that night and told her she was deposed. Together, they took down the cloth of estate from above her head. He ordered his men to leave their weapons and then went to Tower Hill. Jane was left alone in the Tower. Lady Throckmorton, one of her ladies-in-waiting, returned to the Tower for her duties but could not find Jane.
Her belongings were sorted through, all her money confiscated; within the day, she was accused of stealing valuables from the royal wardrobe. Mary was riding to London, now accepted as queen.
Dudley was arrested by his former ally, the earl of Arundel. His entire family was taken to the Tower; as they were marched through the streets, the crowd pelted them with filth and insults.
Mary ordered her from the city. Her cousin Frances, however, was more fortunate. She had a private audience with the queen. Within days, Henry Grey who had been arrested at his London home and sent to the Tower on the 28th was released. On 3 August, Mary made her state entry into London. As she rode past cheering crowds, clad in purple velvet and rich jewels, Jane Grey waited in prison, along with her husband and father-in-law.
What would be their fate? All Europe pondered this, even as Jane prepared to plead her case. Her cousin Mary never questioned her passionate Catholicism; Jane did question her own Protestantism but the quest for spiritual meaning only reinforced her already strong convictions. The truth is, of course, more complex. Mary did not execute Jane because of their religious differences. Rather, she was motivated by political necessity and her own desire to marry and reinstate the Catholic church in England.
Immediately after her accession, Mary had imprisoned Jane in the Tower of London. The former queen was well-treated but undoubtedly frightened. She probably expected imminent execution for she had long since realized the severity of her crime.
Since it became clear no one would intercede for her, she wrote to Mary herself. Only an Italian translation of the letter exists. In it, Jane described events since her marriage to Guildford Dudley.
She was wrong for accepting the crown — she freely admitted this; but she had relied on the advice of others. Mary was in the midst of arranging her marriage to Philip of Spain, the son and heir of Charles V.
It was the culmination of a decades-old dream. She had spent the last few years in the countryside, surrounded by a Catholic household and sympathetic nobles.
Thus, she never realized the extent of Protestantism in the vital areas of London and its surrounding countryside. Mary assumed all of England wanted to return to the early s, the years before Henry VIII had decided to abandon her beloved mother and break with the church of Rome. Mary assumed that the popular support which had taken the throne from Jane indicated support not simply for her rule — but for Catholic rule in general.
In this misguided view, she was initially supported by her most trusted political advisor — a Spaniard named Simon Renard, the newly arrived Imperial ambassador. Charles V had instructed Renard to guide Mary through the crucial first months of her reign. Renard was also instructed to urge moderate punishment upon those who had supported Jane. Charles did not want his cousin to be too cruel; that would hurt her reputation.
Mary was, in fact, too lenient for Renard. She could not put this innocent young woman to death. In times of trouble, those nine days may be used as a precedent for deposing Mary and restoring Jane. Mary was commended for her trusting nature but she must remember that kindness could be destroyed by duplicity. Renard was somewhat mollified when, on 18 August, Dudley was sentenced to die. He was convicted along with his eldest son and William Parr, marquess of Northampton.
The following day a group of lesser nobles were convicted. Or did he genuinely wish to convert? Whatever the case, his execution was delayed for one day while he made his peace with God.
There, he attended mass and, upon receiving the sacrament, Dudley addressed the crowd: My masters, I let you all to understand that I do most faithfully believe this is the very right and true way, out of the which true religion you and I have been seduced these sixteen years past, by the false and erroneous preaching of the new preachers…. And I do believe the holy sacrament here most assuredly to be our Saviour and Redeemer Jesus Christ and this I pray you all to testify and pray for me. He died the next morning, before a great crowd of spectators.
He repeated his speech at the mass; it had a great effect on the crowd. By this point, Jane Grey knew she was safe from imminent death. She was still in the Tower but treated with increasing respect. She had a staff of four two attendant ladies, Mrs Tilney and Mrs Jacob, one manservant, and her nurse and lifelong companion, Mrs Ellen.
The government paid them each 20 shillings a week; Jane was allowed a generous allowance of 90 shillings a week. She was allowed books and spent most of her time reading and studying. She no longer had to deal with her parents or her in-laws, undoubtedly a welcome relief. The gentleman gaoler, called Partridge, and his wife were kind and respectful. But for the answering that he hoped for life by his turning, though other men be of that opinion, I utterly am not; for what man is there living, I pray you, although he had been innocent, that would hope of life in that case; being in the field against the Queen in person as general, and after his taking so hated and evil spoken of by the commons?
Who was judge that he should hope for pardon, whose life was odious to all men? But what will ye more? Like as his life was wicked and full of dissimulation, so was his end thereafter. I pray God, I, nor no friend of mine, die so. Should I, who am young and in my few years, forsake my faith for the love of life? Much more he should not, whose fatal course, although he had lived his just number of years, could not have long continued.
But life was sweet, it appeared; so he might have lived, you will say, he did not care how. Indeed the reason is good; for he that would have lived in chains to have had his life, by like would leave no other mean [un]attempted.
Edward VI, Mary & Elizabeth
Harding had joined other Protestant chaplains in renouncing his reformed faith and becoming Catholic once again. Jane was completely disgusted and appalled by his cowardice: Yea, when I consider these things, I cannot but speak to thee, and cry out upon thee, thou seed of Satan.
Oh wretched and unhappy man, what art thou but dust and ashes? And wilt thou resist thy Maker that fashioned thee and framed thee? Wilt thou refuse the true God, and worship the invention of man, the golden calf, the whore of Babylon, the Romish religion, the abominable idol, the most wicked mass? She was pious, devout, and kind — but she was also self-righteous and intolerant. She and Mary were more alike than many realized.
Both were plain-spoken, transparently honest, and passionately believed their religion was the sole path to salvation. While Mary prepared for her coronation, Jane remained in the Tower. The Dudley brothers were now allowed to exercise on the roof of their prison, Beauchamp Tower, though there is no evidence that Jane and Guildford saw one another.
Mary did not speak of her imprisoned cousin. Her time was taken up with her coronation and impending marriage, as well as the conflict her marriage was causing. Most Englishmen did not want Mary to wed a Spaniard, for the same reasons Edward VI had excluded her from the succession — she was past middle-aged and would probably bear no children.
Therefore, she would leave the throne to a Catholic husband and England would become yet another state of the Imperial empire. So Mary gave in to pressure and ordered Jane and the four Dudley sons to stand trial; the order had been prepared in mid-September but Mary did not allow the trial to take place until two months later.
Lady Jane Grey (1537 - 1554)
As they were led out of the Tower to be arraigned at Guildhall, the executioner walked before them. He carried an axe, as was the custom. Jane dressed soberly for the occasion, as befitted a proper young lady of the reformed church. She was clad all in black; she wore a black cloth gown, black cape trimmed with velvet, and a black French hood trimmed with velvet.
At her girdle hung a prayer book also bound in black velvet. She held a book of prayers open in her hands as she walked behind Guildford. She was attended by her two ladies, Mrs Tilney and Mrs Jacob. The proceedings were a mere formality. Jane and the four Dudleys pled guilty to the charge of high treason. They returned to the Tower, this time with the edge of the axe turned towards them.
In this way, spectators knew they were condemned. But the passing of the sentence was simply a formality. Henry Grey was forced to pay a pd fine but given a general pardon. He returned to court. In fact, Frances Grey was shown great favor at court, even gaining precedence over Princess Elizabeth.
Most observers believed Jane would soon be pardoned and released, free to join her family at court. The rehabilitation of the Greys seemed complete. They can be outlined briefly here. Mary — and most of her contemporaries — believed she must marry; she needed a husband for support and guidance. No woman had ruled England in her own right before. He was the last of the Plantagenets, young, good-looking, and charming; his high birth led him to spend most of his youth in prison.
Mary was kind to him. She released him from the Tower and restored he and his mother to favor. But she also made it clear she would not marry him. And she continued to do so when she became queen. Certainly Philip of Spain, heir to the Hapsburg empire, was the most sought-after prince in Europe.
But he was also the grandson of her aunt, which meant a great deal to the sentimental Mary Tudor. Still, she did not immediately plan to marry him. She was deeply religious and had spent the past twenty years essentially alone and unloved. She was naturally fearful of marriage. She asked Renard — was Philip too young for her?
In short, she was a deeply devout and chaste maiden and he was a twenty-six-year-old widower. Would he be happy with her? Renard assured her that Philip was delighted to wed Mary. And, he added, they would have children together, providing England with a Catholic succession. Mary replied that she had never considered marriage until God had raised her to the throne but — now that she was queen — she would lead her subjects down the path of righteousness.
With the might of the Holy Roman Empire behind her, her faith would be triumphant. So she agreed to marry Philip in late October ; their engagement was made official. She was faced with a hostile reaction. Both her subjects and the king of France made their anger known.
Many Englishmen believed Charles V wanted to drag England into war against France, another costly and ineffectual enterprise. In truth, Charles really wanted control of that vital sea route between Spain and the Netherlands; he needed to control the English coast in order for his trade route to operate at its maximum profitability.