During this morning workshop, we'll have some breakfast goodies for you to enjoy while we explore motivation and the relationship between. The individuals motivated by needs for power have a desire to control and is urge of a person to have interpersonal and social relationships with others or a. were investigated. In order to find the culture and motivation link, mixed method approach for data . These include; power culture, role culture, Task culture, and.
Researchers in the past have highlighted that work characteristics or stressors e.
Individual factors such as occupation, education, sex, and experience that may act as potential moderators of stress, influence these perceptions Ivancevich and Matteson Strains can also be led by lack of control Thompson The following sections are some components of job stress.
Role conflict Role conflict can be resulted by trying to meet the demands of two or more groups i. Effect on job performance is an important consequence of role conflict. Nevertheless, psychological withdrawal from the job leading to reduced job performance may be experienced by employees encountering role conflict Bettencourt and Brown However, results of studies investigating the effects of role conflict on job performance have been inconsistent.
For example, some researchers Bhuian et al.
Motivation and emotion/Book//Power motivation - Wikiversity
If the expectations are not achieved, this person will suffer stress, become dissatisfied, and perform less effectively. Role conflict exists from two very unlike policies or insistent requests and produces individual dissatisfaction and decreased organizational performance Rum et al. As evidenced in the past, most researchers consent that utmost role conflict will gradually destroy job performance gradually Singh et al.The Power of LOVE💗 - One of the most Motivational Talks Ever (very emotional!)
Role ambiguity Role ambiguity refers to the degree to which clarity is lacking in the anticipations connected with a role, in the ways for carrying out known role anticipations or in the results of role performance Kahn et al. It can also be described as a deficiency of information required to perform the role Cooper et al.
Other researchers defined role ambiguity as the absence of clarity and predictability in the job Menon and Akhilesh Role ambiguity will result in coping behaviour by the uncomfortable employees in organizations who may attempt to solve the problems for avoiding stress, or use defence mechanisms for changing the real situation according to role theory.
For that reason, ambiguity will permit an employee to be dissatisfied with his role in the organization, alter reality, and reduce his performance. Employees who are experiencing role ambiguity tend to have lower performance Bhuian et al. Customer-oriented behaviour and, ultimately, profitability can be constrained if experiencing role ambiguity Flaherty et al. Ambiguity is especially serious in those functional areas where managerial positions inclined to be less concrete in nature and need more abstract thinking and decision making.
Such uncertainties may emerge because the anticipations describing the role are themselves ill-defined and not consistent. Role overload Role overload can be described as an individual lacks of resources to satisfy distinct roles, where there is a need to apply commitments, obligations, or requirements Peterson et al.
Relationship between bases of power and job stresses: role of mentoring
Being the most frequently mentioned stress within the three sources, role overload can be viewed as the amount of work to be done within a given period of time and lead to over demands of working time and create uncertainty of performance Cooper et al.
When the work requires skills, abilities, and knowledge beyond what the person has, qualitative overload occurs. In addition, qualitative overload occurs when employees feel that they are lacking of the ability to do the job regardless of the amount of time available to them to complete the job. It may also arise when performance standards are fixed so high as to appear not attainable Larson Psychological discord In a survey of job stress and its effect at an university, Dua found that psychological distress is among the factors that contribute to higher levels of job stress.
Psychological stress is likely to be expressed as psychological symptoms including sleep disturbances, anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, and restlessness Edwards et al.
Behavioural changes of the kind frequently monitored in stress management interventions such as increased absenteeism Murphy and Sorensoninsurance claims, and use of health care services may be resulted by this stress. Lack of control Lack of control also constitutes a source of stress Karuppan Perceived lack of control Perrewe and Ganster has been recognized as work-related stressors.
More exactly, this line of study shows that stress arises when employees perceive a lack of sufficient control over deciding how to perform their task. Kaldenberg and Becker tested the relationship between the amount of workload preferred and the real amount undergone.
They concluded that workers with greater control and autonomy undergo less strain. Hence, lack of control can be viewed as organizationally-induced stressors. Relaxation Relaxation is a kind of meditation, a state of concentration.
One cancels out all distraction associated with everyday life by using the mind to focus upon an object, image, or thought.
The greater probability of managerial stress and greater consciousness of the issue of legal liability has, understandably, cause problem to increasing consideration.
As a new breed of stress consultants become recognized, the means of measuring stress in organizations are developed. Although those strategies concentrate on symptoms and by creating the illusion that something positive are being done, they actually inhibit the identification and tackling of the basic causes of stress HSE As stated by Krama mentor provides support, direction, counselling, friendship, advice, increased employee exposure and visibility towards career development.
These functions can be simplified to two roles, which are career and psychosocial support. Three different functions distinguished by Gregory et al.
Psychosocial support and role modelling are frequently joined together in literature Gregory et al. As stated by Allen and Eby and Elliott et al.
Mentorship contributes to improved employee motivation, performance, commitment, and retention. Successful mentorship assists the progress of leadership development and can be an effective means of recognizing talent.
As mentors relay norms and values Wilson and Elmanorganizational culture and philosophy can be promoted. Mentoring also develops human resources by operating as a kind of on-the-job training, which results in building a competent workforce Allen et al.
The following sections are dimensions of mentoring which are adopted in this study. Mentors offer young adults with career-enhancing functions, like sponsorship, coaching, acilitating exposure and visibility, and offering challenging work or protection, all of which help the younger individual to set up a function in the organization, learns the ropes, and prepare for advancement Kram and Isabella Jennings found that most corporate presidents had mentors and that the mentoring process was vital to their achievements, in regards to the career-development function.
Psychosocial support Psychosocial support is another dimension of mentoring where mentor offers role modelling, counselling, confirmation, and friendship in the psychosocial sphere, which help the young adult to develop a sense of professional identity and competence Kram and Isabella Hypotheses Erkutlu and Chafra hypothesized that perceived supervisory legitimate, reward, and coercive power would be positively related to subordinate stress with regard to position powers because they are likely to evoke a sense of lack of personal control at work Costa and Martins ; Lees Subordinate stress is likely to be provoked by the perceived lack of control and the anxiety associated with the need to satisfy the supervisor Ganster and Schaubroeck ; Kahn and Byosiere ; Elangovan and Xie Hence the following hypothesis is developed.
Positional power bases of the mentor is positively related to subordinate stress On the other hand, Erkutlu and Chafra hypothesized that expert and referent power of the supervisor has a negative relationship with subordinate stress Munir et al. McClelland and Watson indicate that gratification of the power motive depends merely on incentive and is not motivated by the likelihood of success. Power motivated individuals select high-incentive goals, as achieving these goals gives them major control, and satisfaction in the need for achievement.
Tendency to seek power is lowest for low-incentive goals and highest for high-incentive goals. If we relate this to the matter of competition and winning, those who initially take the incentive to strive for high-incentive goals, also acquire the highest power.
Perhaps then, those who have met and succeeded in their goal selection have a high power motive than those who have not. Reeve explains that goals are set and achieved more easily by those who have a high desire for power as opposed to those who have a low desire. He states further that with a high need for power, there is also an increase in the tendency to approach rather than to inhibit, affirming that high power motivation and action tend to go hand in hand.
Motivation and emotion/Book/2013/Power motivation
McClelland expresses these qualities as the true need for power. Furthermore power motivation is not about one with dictatorial, overbearing behaviour, rather one with a need to have some influence, to be significant and efficient in achieving goals. In other words, a person who is motivated from something internal to them, or intrinsically motivated may find the initial power motive to win. However just as motives do, goals also direct behaviour and unlike implicit motivation, goals predict behaviour when the individual cognitively decides on a course of action.
This action can be motivated from either explicit or implicit power motivation. Socialised versus personalised power motivation: Only those who have the need for social recognition can truly be successful through socialised power motivation, however in using personalised power motivation each and every individual can benefit.
So how do we distinguish the two, and use them to our benefit?
Socialised power motivation[ edit ] An individual with socialised power motive uses power as a means to achieve their goals. This motivation is more likely to achieve success. Those with socialised power motives are: Emotionally more mature Organise power for the benefit of a group rather than self Are less likely to use power to manipulate Are less defensive Are willing to take on advice from others Have a long-term perspective Personalised power motivation[ edit ] Locke describes the individual with a high personalised power motivation as one that uses it as a means to an end or ultimate personal goal.