We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and. The Relationship between Rumination and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in People with Depression, Martina SL Cheung, Emily LLSin, Ming Lam, Tatia. () included only one study examining depressive rumination and ANS responses, and this study found no association between experimentally-induced .
Researchers believe that when an individual faces traumatic life events and experiences negative emotions e. This overthinking activates the previous negative memory and results in a negative reaction to the present circumstance.
The sense of failure and helplessness is then strengthened. Therefore, under the influence of rumination, the social function of individual psychology may induce a morbid state, which would eventually develop into emotional disorders, including depression and anxiety [ 25 ]. As an important positive psychological trait, hope has elicited much attention from scholars; it is regarded as a protective factor by people faced with risks [ 26 ]. Snyder defined hope as an internal sense of success and an active motivation state [ 27 ]; compared with an individual with a low level of hope, an individual with a high hope level is more firm and flexible and seeks alternative means to realize his expected goal when faced with failure to mitigate the negative effect induced by negative events [ 27 ].
Previous research has indicated that hope plays a protective role in depression and has a negative correlation with depression [ 28 ]. The current study explores the relations between rumination and depression in undergraduates and the moderating effect of hope on depression. Methods Participants and procedure Participants were undergraduates from two general universities in China, which consisted of women and men.
The ages of participants ranged from 19 to 23, with a mean of All participants provided their written informed consent before completing the measures. The RRS has been shown to have good internal consistency and validity [ 7 ]. The scores on all of the items are added to obtain the total score, which ranges from 22 to 88, with higher scores indicating higher levels of ruminative coping responses. RRS was translated into Chinese by Hong and his colleges, and has been proven to have good validity and reliability for the Chinese population [ 29 ].
In the present study, the Cronbach alpha coefficient for the RRS was 0. Hope scale Hope was measured using the Hope Scale, a item self-report measure [ 27 ]. The scale consists of two subscales: The pathways items measure the ability to develop goal achieving strategies. The agency items assess the extent to which a person believes that they can achieve their goals through their pathways. The Hope Scale has shown good test—retest reliability and high internal consistency has been observed for both subscales [ 30 ].
Hope scale was translated by Zhang, Gao, Wang and Wu in the year ofand has been proven to have good validity and reliability [ 31 ]. In the current study, the Cronbach alpha coefficient for the Hope scale was 0. Self-rating depression scale SDS Self-rating Depression Scale SDSdeveloped by Zung, is a self-report measure of depression consisting of 20 items, with a four-point scale ranging from a little of the time 1 to most of the time 4.
Of the 20 items, 10 are worded positively and 10 are worded negatively. The former 10 items are reversed items.
The validity and the reliability of the SDS have been reported [ 32 ]. The researcher translated the item version of SDS into Chinese, and the Chinese vision of the scale has been proved to have good validity and reliability [ 33 ]. In this study, the Cronbach alpha coefficient for SDS was 0. Table 1 Means, standard deviations, and correlations of rumination, hope and depression Mean. Third, with rare exception Stewart, et al.
Consequently, examining the association between rumination and stress responses in study designs that experimentally manipulate stressors is important. Specifically, we examined whether rumination was associated with affective, cognitive, and physiological responses to the TSST.
We hypothesized that higher levels of trait rumination would be associated with: We extend previous research on rumination and physiological reactivity and recovery by examining the association of rumination with cardiovascular responses to a laboratory-based stressor. Although females engage in higher levels of rumination than males, existing evidence suggests that the processes associated with rumination may, at times, be similar for males and females Michl, et al. Thus, we expected that the associations between rumination and stress responses would be similar for males and females.
Methods Participants A community-based sample of adolescents aged 13—17 was recruited for participation at schools, after-school programs, medical clinics, and the general community in Boston and Cambridge, MA. To do so, we recruited heavily from low-SES neighborhoods and from clinics that served a predominantly low-SES catchment area. A total of 4 adolescents were taking medications known to influence cardiovascular functioning e.
The resulting sample of adolescents was All females were post-menarchal. Over one-third of the sample Equipment malfunctions resulted in loss of physiological data from 8 participants. The final sample included participants. For each item, youth are asked to rate how often they respond in that way when they feel sad on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from almost never 1 to almost always 4.
Different effects of rumination on depression: key role of hope
The rumination subscale of our abbreviated measure included 6 items that were summed. It includes 27 items consisting of three statements e. The CDI has sound psychometric properties, including internal consistency, test—retest reliability, and discriminant validity Kovacs, ; Reynolds, The item pertaining to suicidal ideation was removed from the measure at the request of school officials and the human subjects committee.
The 26 remaining items were summed to create a total score ranging from 0 to In this study, we present the findings pertaining to negative affect. Each item was rated on a one- to seven-point scale.
Items representing situational demands e.
Physiological measures Electrocardiogram ECG and impedance cardiography recordings were acquired to generate measures of heart rate, pre-ejection period PEPa measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia RSAa measure of parasympathetic nervous system activity. One pair of mylar tapes completely encircled the neck and another pair encircled the torso.
ECG and impedance cardiograph data were scored by raters blind to participant status on rumination and psychopathology.
RSA was calculated for the frequency band 0. Respiration rate was derived from the basal cardiac impedance signal. Impedance cardiography was used to calculate PEP, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activation representing the amount of time that elapses from the beginning of ventricular depolarization to the moment the aortic valve opens and blood begins leaving the left ventricle electrical systole.
Procedure Baseline physiological data were collected during a five-minute period in which participants were asked to sit quietly.
Adolescents then completed questionnaire and interview measures. The TSST involves three periods speech preparation, speech, and math. After being told that they would be delivering a speech in front of trained evaluators who would judge their performance, participants were given five minutes to prepare their speech.
In the current study, participants were asked to talk about the qualities of a good friend and which of those characteristics they did and did not possess. Next, participants delivered a five-minute speech in front of two evaluators. Evaluators were trained to provide neutral and mildly negative feedback e.
Finally, participants completed a mental subtraction task out loud in front of the evaluators for five-minutes.
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Specifically, participants were asked to count backwards in steps of seven from a three-digit number and were stopped and asked to start again each time they made a mistake. ECG and cardiac impedance recordings were measured continuously across each period; blood pressure recordings were sampled during the first and fourth minutes of each period. Two participants declined to participate in the TSST, resulting in a total of participants who completed the procedure.
Following the TSST, participants were asked to sit quietly for another five-minute period, and their physiological activity was monitored, allowing examination of physiological recovery following the TSST.