India–Japan relations - Wikipedia
Thus, exploring emerging India can surely not be confined to economic analysis only. In- . India as a Member of BRICS and its Relations with South Africa .. tions to build a temple in Ayodhya in the name of Lord Ram at the site States like US, states from West Europe, Russia,Japan, China as well as. The relationship with Japan, however, is too special to be given the same treatment. Therefore, the Indo-Japanese bilateral cooperation is carried out under If the emerging geopolitical environment helps Japan become a. Japan's rising dominance and touchy relations with its neighbors make it of the creator god Izanagi, sent her grandson Ninigi to Earth on the Japanese Japan preserved its independence and culture while emerging from isolation to .. Stone Tools From India: Another Blow To Human Evolution Model?.
UntilJapanese schools taught a myth of history based on the earliest recorded Japanese chronicles, which were written in the eighth century.
They describe how the sun goddess Amaterasu, born from the left eye of the creator god Izanagi, sent her grandson Ninigi to Earth on the Japanese island of Kyushu to wed an earthly deity.
To fill the gap between b. Before the end of World War II, when Emperor Hirohito finally announced that he was not of divine descent, Japanese archeologists and historians had to make their interpretations conform to this chronicle account. Unlike American archeologists, who acknowledge that ancient sites in the United States were left by peoples Native Americans unrelated to most modern Americans, Japanese archeologists believe all archeological deposits in Japan, no matter how old, were left by ancestors of the modern Japanese.
Hence archeology in Japan is supported by astronomical budgets, employs up to 50, field-workers each year, and draws public attention to a degree inconceivable anywhere else in the world. Why do they care so much? Unlike most other non-European countries, Japan preserved its independence and culture while emerging from isolation to create an industrialized society in the late nineteenth century. It was a remarkable achievement. Now the Japanese people are understandably concerned about maintaining their traditions in the face of massive Western cultural influences.
They want to believe that their distinctive language and culture required uniquely complex developmental processes. To acknowledge a relationship of the Japanese language to any other language seems to constitute a surrender of cultural identity.
What makes it especially difficult to discuss Japanese archeology dispassionately is that Japanese interpretations of the past affect present behavior. Who among East Asian peoples brought culture to whom? Who has historical claims to whose land? These are not just academic questions. For instance, there is much archeological evidence that people and material objects passed between Japan and Korea in the period a.
Japanese interpret this to mean that Japan conquered Korea and brought Korean slaves and artisans to Japan; Koreans believe instead that Korea conquered Japan and that the founders of the Japanese imperial family were Korean. Thus, when Japan sent troops to Korea and annexed it inJapanese military leaders celebrated the annexation as the restoration of the legitimate arrangement of antiquity.
For the next 35 years, Japanese occupation forces tried to eradicate Korean culture and to replace the Korean language with Japanese in schools. The effort was a consequence of a centuries-old attitude of disdain.
Nose tombs in Japan still contain 20, noses severed from Koreans and brought home as trophies of a sixteenth-century Japanese invasion.
Not surprisingly, many Koreans loathe the Japanese, and their loathing is returned with contempt. What really was the legitimate arrangement of antiquity? Today, Japan and Korea are both economic powerhouses, facing each other across the Korea Strait and viewing each other through colored lenses of false myths and past atrocities.
It bodes ill for the future of East Asia if these two great peoples cannot find common ground. To do so, they will need a correct understanding of who the Japanese people really are. It is, for comparison, far more isolated than Britain, which lies only 22 miles from the French coast. Japan lies miles from the closest point of the Asian mainland South Koreamiles from mainland Russia, and miles from mainland China.
Climate, too, sets Japan apart. Its rainfall, up to inches a year, makes it the wettest temperate country in the world. Despite thousands of years of dense human occupation, Japan still offers visitors a first impression of greenness because 70 percent of its land is still covered by forest.
Japanese forest composition varies with latitude and altitude: For prehistoric humans, the deciduous leafy forest was the most productive, providing abundant edible nuts such as walnuts, chestnuts, horse chestnuts, acorns, and beechnuts. Japanese waters are also outstandingly productive. The lakes, rivers, and surrounding seas teem with salmon, trout, tuna, sardines, mackerel, herring, and cod. Today, Japan is the largest consumer of fish in the world.
Japanese waters are also rich in clams, oysters, and other shellfish, crabs, shrimp, crayfish, and edible seaweeds. From southwest to northeast, the four main Japanese islands are Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido. Until the late nineteenth century, Hokkaido and northern Honshu were inhabited mainly by the Ainu, who lived as hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture, while the people we know today as Japanese occupied the rest of the main islands.
In appearance, of course, the Japanese are very similar to other East Asians. As for the Ainu, however, their distinctive appearance has prompted more to be written about their origins and relationships than about any other single people on Earth. Partly because Ainu men have luxuriant beards and the most profuse body hair of any people, they are often classified as Caucasoids so-called white people who somehow migrated east through Eurasia to Japan. In their overall genetic makeup, though, the Ainu are related to other East Asians, including the Japanese and Koreans.
But this view is difficult to reconcile with the distinctiveness of the Japanese language. Everyone agrees that Japanese does not bear a close relation to any other language in the world.
Korean is also often considered to be an isolated member of this family, and within the family Japanese and Korean may be more closely related to each other than to other Altaic languages. However, the similarities between Japanese and Korean are confined to general grammatical features and about 15 percent of their basic vocabularies, rather than the detailed shared features of grammar and vocabulary that link, say, French to Spanish; they are more different from each other than Russian is from English.
Since languages change over time, the more similar two languages are, the more recently they must have diverged. By counting common words and features, linguists can estimate how long ago languages diverged, and such estimates suggest that Japanese and Korean parted company at least 4, years ago. As for the Ainu language, its origins are thoroughly in doubt; it may not have any special relationship to Japanese.
After genes and language, a third type of evidence about Japanese origins comes from ancient portraits. Those statues unmistakably depict East Asians. They do not resemble the heavily bearded Ainu. If the Japanese did replace the Ainu in Japan south of Hokkaido, that replacement must have occurred before a. Our earliest written information about Japan comes from Chinese chronicles, because China developed literacy long before Korea or Japan. In early Chinese accounts of various peoples referred to as Eastern Barbarians, Japan is described under the name Wa, whose inhabitants were said to be divided into more than a hundred quarreling states.
Only a few Korean or Japanese inscriptions before a. Those reveal massive transmission of culture to Japan from Korea itself, and from China via Korea.
The chronicles are also full of accounts of Koreans in Japan and of Japanese in Korea—interpreted by Japanese or Korean historians, respectively, as evidence of Japanese conquest of Korea or the reverse. The ancestors of the Japanese, then, seem to have reached Japan before they had writing. Their biology suggests a recent arrival, but their language suggests arrival long ago.
The enduring basis of strong India-Japan relations | The Japan Times
To resolve this paradox, we must now turn to archeology. The seas that surround much of Japan and coastal East Asia are shallow enough to have been dry land during the ice ages, when much of the ocean water was locked up in glaciers and sea level lay at about feet below its present measurement. Stone tools indicate human arrival as early as half a million years ago.
Around 13, years ago, as glaciers melted rapidly all over the world, conditions in Japan changed spectacularly for the better, as far as humans were concerned. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity all increased, raising plant productivity to present high levels.
Deciduous leafy forests full of nut trees, which had been confined to southern Japan during the ice ages, expanded northward at the expense of coniferous forest, thereby replacing a forest type that had been rather sterile for humans with a much more productive one. The rise in sea level severed the land bridges, converted Japan from a piece of the Asian continent to a big archipelago, turned what had been a plain into rich shallow seas, and created thousands of miles of productive new coastline with innumerable islands, bays, tidal flats, and estuaries, all teeming with seafood.
That end of the Ice Age was accompanied by the first of the two most decisive changes in Japanese history: For the first time in human experience, people had watertight containers readily available in any desired shape. With their new ability to boil or steam food, they gained access to abundant resources that had previously been difficult to use: Soft-boiled foods could be fed to small children, permitting earlier weaning and more closely spaced babies.
Toothless old people, the repositories of information in a preliterate society, could now be fed and live longer. In addition, those first Japanese potters were clearly hunter-gatherers, which also violated established views. Usually only sedentary societies own pottery: Most sedentary societies elsewhere in the world arose only with the adoption of agriculture. But the Japanese environment is so productive that people could settle down and make pottery while still living by hunting and gathering.
By the same token, success in this enterprise will create the biggest growth cohort of the middle class in the world, which translates into a swelling consumer class with growing disposable incomes. Japan is a capital-surplus, high-income country with an aging and declining population. Its dwindling labor force cannot indefinitely support the increasing share of retirees and elderly people, and its shrinking domestic market will not be able to sustain existing standards of living.
There is no better example than joint ventures in creating a network of high-speed, reliable and safe bullet trains to connect the length and breadth of India for rapid movement of people and freight.
Bitter historical memories can be triggered with remarkable speed and unexpectedness, and each episode then requires weeks of delicate handling by all governments concerned. Fifth, during the Cold War one major irritant was their divergent foreign policy postures. India was a founding giant of the Nonaligned Movement that often betrayed pro-Soviet leanings in statements, policies and U.
Moscow was its most important defense supplier. By contrast Japan was a solid U. A relatively well-known result of the two nations' was inwhen India sent the Tokyo Zoo two elephants to cheer the spirits of the defeated Japanese empire. India's iron ore helped Japan's recovery from World War II devastation, and following Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi 's visit to India inJapan started providing yen loans to India inas the first yen loan aid extended by Japanese government.
Since the s, however, efforts were made to strengthen bilateral ties. Japan imposed sanctions on India following the test, which included the suspension of all political exchanges and the cutting off of economic assistance. These sanctions were lifted three years later.
Relations improved exponentially following this period, as bilateral ties between the two nations improved once again,  to the point where the Japanese prime minister, Shinzo Abe was to be the chief guest at India's Republic Day parade.
His visit further strengthened the ties between the two countries, and resulted in several key agreements, including the establishment of a "Special Strategic Global Partnership".
During the meeting, India and Japan signed the "Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy", a landmark civil nuclear agreement, under which Japan will supply nuclear reactors, fuel and technology to India. India is not a signatory to the non-Proliferation Treaty NPTand is the only non-signatory to receive an exemption from Japan. This is the single largest overseas project being financed by Japan and reflected growing economic partnership between the two nations.
India is also one of the only three countries in the world with whom Japan has security pact. As of MarchJapan was the third largest investor in India. Kenichi Yoshida, a director of Softbridge Solutions Japan, stated in late that Indian engineers were becoming the backbone of Japan's IT industry and that "it is important for Japanese industry to work together with India".
Under the memorandum, any Japanese coming to India for business or work will be straightway granted a three-year visa and similar procedures will be followed by Japan. Other highlights of this visit includes abolition of customs duties on 94 per cent of trade between the two nations over the next decade.
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As per the Agreement, tariffs will be removed on almost 90 per cent of Japan's exports to India and 97 per cent of India's exports to Japan Trade between the two nations has also steadily been growing. India and Japan signed an agreement in December to build a bullet train line between Mumbai and Ahmedabad using Japan's Shinkansen technology. With the help from Japan, both countries hope this will strengthen their economic ties and suspend China's influence in Asia.
India and Japan also have close military ties. They have shared interests in maintaining the security of sea-lanes in the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean, and in co-operation for fighting international crime, terrorism, piracy and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction .
The two nations have frequently held joint military exercises and co-operate on technology. India is also negotiating to purchase US-2 amphibious aircraft for the Indian Navy.