Method, Platonic Questions, & Aristotelian Principles, Peter Kreeft, Trent Dougherty The Emperor Julian's Relation to the New Katarina Kara or Evic, Alkibijad, Kliment Aleksandrijski, Izvor Wikipedia. asmatronymic (), although her relationship with his father Anchi-ses has come up rather earlier Ten Essays in Platonic Interpreta-tion, London , 13) navodi da je Alkibijad imaoza politiåkog protivnika, pored Nikije, Fajaka. Feb 14, Platonic love is a special emotional and spiritual relationship between two people and is different than romantic love, but can be even more.
Define your relationship Metaphorically speaking, this point is literally the bedrock you build a platonic relationship upon. Being honest about the feelings you have for each other will reveal whether there are any passionate pangs involved.
Communication is king An ongoing project for two people involved in a platonic relationship centres communication. It is vital that you both discuss anything that may cause tension.
Also, feeling free to voice concerns that you might be getting too close will enable you to be more open with each other. If in doubt, talk it out! When you feel the strain, remembering some of the benefits your bond yields can be useful. We come now to the famous Pygmalion story and to one other with which Karl Galinsky in his excellent monograph on the Metamorphoses closely associates it, elaborating on an insight of Brooks Otis.
University of California Press,pp. In an old form of the Pygmalion tale it was explicitly a statue of the most beautiful goddess, and at least one modern painter, Edward Burne-Jones, has shown Venus and Galatea" to be visual twins.
The Ovidian Pygmalion, however, dares not identify his creation with the goddess, any more than he can bring himself to say explicitly what he would really like from her when he sacrifices and prays to unspecified gods" on her feast day X,: Sensit, ut ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis, vota quid illa velint X, In fact, having fashioned her facsimile out of ivory he wants to marry a girl like Venus, and she allows him to have his wish by a miracle of transubstantiation of ivory into living flesh.
This is one of only two instances in Ovid where a prayer is heard, is understood to mean more than the person who prays dares to express, and is granted without terrible or sardonic irony.
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The other is the episode that Otis and Galinsky link to it, the latter writing there is an intentionally designed parallelism between the stories of Iphis and Pygmalion" 87; emphasis added.
She is a girl child whom her mother Telethusa assured by the goddess Isis that all would be well brought up as boy because her husband would not raise a girl, who falls in reciprocated love with her girl neighbor Ianthe who, of course, thinks all along, as her parents do, that she, Iphis, is a he and is duly betrothed to her.
Just before their rather embarrassing wedding can be celebrated Isis transforms Iphis into a bridegroom. Venus, with Juno and Hymenaeus, blesses a union more fortunate than others at which these two goddesses connive Jason's with Medea in Apollonius, Aeneas' with Dido in Virgil: IX, The similarity", Galinsky points out, is reinforced by parallel details such as Pygmalion's and Telethusa's prayers at the altar, the omens, the event of the metamorphosis at that point, the ensuing thanks to the deities, the marriages, and the participation of Venus in both weddings" 87; emphasis added.
I must stress those last eight words. Cura and spes are emotionally rich nouns, first and easily taken with Veneris as objective genitive, in the sense of sex" that we find ubiquitous in Ovid's works. However, Venus' personal involvement in celebration of the conventional, heterosexual wedding that eventuates later suggests a second reading. If we take both instances of Veneris as subjective genitive, the meaning shifts, so that the goddess has concern about Iphis' plightthe goddess has hope of something better than a bull?
Below we return to his story, looking into the relationship between Roman Venus and cosmopolitan and syncretic Isis. Three further episodes fill out our picture of the goddess under her Roman name, although they may pertain originally to a Greek or even to an oriental" deity.
Venus-and-Adonis is a familiar tragedy. Against his goddess- -lover's fretful warning the young hunter Adonis encounters a deadly boar and dies. Which of those two is responsible does not matter for my purpose, although the culprit is hardly glorified by the deed.
Atalanta and her suitor Hippomenes a great-grandson of Neptune play out a less familiar two-act tragedy. Its romantic Act I shows Venus again receptive to a prayer, in this case by Hippomenes. She herself is telling the story: Cum me sollicita proles Neptunia voce invocat Hippomenes 'Cytherea'que 'conprecor ausis adsit' ait 'nostris et, quos dedit, adiuvet ignes!
X, To win the hand of the beautiful but formidably athletic Atalanta, this young fellow must either quicken his best sprinting pace or somehow slow her down. Slow her down he does, by means of three distracting golden apples that Venus provides in answer to that invocation.
He wins the race; they marry. They do not, however, live happily ever after, for, ungrateful to Venus and paying her no due thank offerings, they end badly. The Love-goddess impels Hippomenes to an untimely bout of love-making in a rural temple dedicated to the holy Mother of the Gods, who then punishes them both for such a defilement by transforming them into a lion and a lioness a condign punishment since at one time in antiquity, though perhaps no longer in Ovid's, lions were thought to breed only cross-sex with leopards or some other species of large feline.
Clearly we could read this as an allegory of a developing and deteriorating relationship, just as we can take the Pygmalion myth symbolically, like the one of Orpheus, as allegorizing the dynamics of art. In any case, Venus here is serious and sensible, not flighty, when she speaks and acts. She chastises an ungrateful man, it is true; but we must note a that she had appeared to him alone, in person, given him the apples, and explained to him how to use them IX,after which he failed to give her deserved thanks ; and b how much harsher yet less justified is the dreadful punishment that Diana metes out to King Oeneus of Calydon, and to his kingdom and tragic family, for not including her in his general thanksgiving to the gods, even though she had 18 24 done nothing special for him of which we are made aware VIII.
Still resentful over the involvement of the Sun-god in the outing of her affair with Mars, Venus may, as Ovid suggests, have made Sol's daughter Circe eager and unlucky in love XIV, She also does not forgive the hero Diomedes for physically wounding her at Troy and persecutes him after the war XIV. However, she punishes with avian metamorphosis into an undetermined species of water birds a blasphemer in his exiled entourage, Acmon, and those who seconded his rash challenge.
What is left", Acmon asks, that Venus can do? This, however, occurs in those late books where she has changed, and where the Mars with whom she is connected is the Augustan state god, father of Romulus Anderson 6 10 ad v.
Thus, we are to interpret the metamorphosis as a compensation for sorrow. Diomedes, the speaker here, does not mention what we know from elsewhere that his wife Aegialeia had been seduced in his absence during the war and blocked his happy homecoming in Argos. Venus was surely involved, although Nauplius, vindictive father of judically murdered Palamedes, or Palamedes' brother Oeax is also said to have played a role in this. He does not bear that title, however, or pursue revenge in this poem, unless in the death of Adonis?
Mars Ultor in the Forum Augustum: A Verbal Monument with a Vengeance", pp in Bimillennium.
Ironically, the deus ultor" of the Iphis and Anaxarete tale in Met. XIV is likely to be Venus, as I suggest above. On Venus as avenger see Patricia B.
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Salzman-Mitchell, A Web of Fantasies. The Ohio State University Press,pp. On the historical" last five books of the poem see, with earlier bibliography, Garth Tissol, The House of Fame: Tissol remarks the unequal justice typical of the Metamorphoses"when Venus transforms most of Diomedes' companions although only a few approved Acmon's blasphemy. However, this is already Augustan Venus, herself transformed from the kinder, gentler one of the first ten books.
Furthermore, that she spares some may mitigate her action if we understand Virgil, Aeneid XI, f. Both of deifications are rather awkward and deliberately so, one suspects. Ovid knows his art so well that we may safely suppose that sour notes are intended to sound so.
Aeneas' posthumous immersion, in fact the consequence of what seems to be his drowning, seems to pollute the Numicus with all that was criminally sentenced to death" which is exactly what obnoxia morti at XIV, means! In any case, it evidently takes the River-god a good deal of scrubbing to get the demigod's mortal dirt off him and away into the water repurgat et respergit aquis,whereupon his divine mother applies a good deal of deodorant and face- -cream divino corpus odore unxit et ambrosia cum dulci nectare mixta contigit os, to render him presentable among the other gods.
Julius Caesar's deification is grosser yet. His divine part shoots up into heaven, glowing and hot like a lead pellet shot from a sling.
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He is too hot for his divine ancestress to cuddle or even to handle XV. Venus in these latter passages is officious, Julian and political, not the cosmic or just, yet compassionate Golden One" of earlier in the poem. Using ironic reverse-psychology, the poet has twice metamorphosed Venus herself, first into the interesting and approachable personality whom we can distinguish from the unflattering Ovidian caricatures of several other divinities, on the one hand, and from the irresponsible immoralist of his own earlier works, on the other.
But she is not yet the stiff, incongruous matron of the Augustan pantheon either. Significantly, we may well believe, and with fine subtlety beneath his patent sarcasm, the poet as vates prays to other gods, national" gods trotted out under metrically ingenious appellations, some of them Mars, Apollo in particular, and Jupiter remembered targets of his wit, that they bless and magnify Augustus XV, before he joins them in Heaven.
Venus, however, has now disappeared entirely! Why would Ovid present this new Venus and then re-metamorphose her? We may observe that the opening dialogue between the poet and Venus that opens Fasti Book IV is the nearest Ovid comes to the famous poetess of Lesbos. It would be silly to pretend that Ovid, even in his assumed, mutable authorial persona, let alone in his actual self, became a Sappho-like adherent to a devout cult of 20 26 Aphrodite-Venus almost as his personal savior".
Nor do I postulate that, because of the sexual oddities that he associates with Venus Hermaphroditus and the transsexual Iphis, though not that more famous anomalies Tiresias of Book III and Caenis-Caeneus in XIIhe had an unconscious awareness, in others or even in himself, of and compassion for transsexualism.
If we follow C. Green in finding the Varronian distinction among poetic, civic and philosophic theologies in Fasti, 19 and see IV as philosophic", Ovid there lies somewhere between aforementioned sublime invocation of Venus by Epicurean Lucretius as personified natural process and Platonist Apuleius' syncretism that identifies all manifestations of a wise and philanthropic feminine divine with Isis. Ovid's third-religious" thinking does not appear to be mystical, like Apuleius' Isiac allegory, nor like Plutarch's for that matter; it may be closer in nature to that recently imported exotic cult which he had satirized as his girlfriend's excuse for temporary chastity in Amores I, 7or for goings-on away from prying eyes II, 2.
On the other hand, his well-known prayer to Isis II, 13 after Corinna's life-threatening abortion is more subtly ironic-or is it? Why do we suspect irony? Now that transsexuals and those who understand and sympathize with them are searching through world history, including literary, to find closeted transsexuals among the great and near-great, they may develop hypotheses identifying ancient transsexuals.
Anacreon will likely be reckoned among these, of course; but I doubt that Ovid will be.
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The Ohio State University Press,pp,transsexualism so named is not yet a topic. Cambridge University Press, Green treats the Venus material of Book IV at 78 83, where she offers much on syncretism, also following Varro: This seems like a serious prayer, like the appeal to birth-goddess Ilithyia that follows.
In Metamorphoses, however, Ovid's sympathy for women has advanced far beyond the coy rhetoric of the fifteen letters of the early Heroides and the male chauvinist persona of the naughty elegiac works. Among the first of his almost countless sympathetic females in Metamorphoses is Io who at the end of the painful wanderings imposed upon her by the combination of Jupiter and Juno, who between them reduce her to a poor cow, becomes in Egypt dea linigera, i.
We may find a later parallel in the case of Lucian of Samosata who departs from his cynical treatment of the Greek-Hellenistic pantheon in his Herodotean-dialect treatment of pilgrimage to and worship of the Syrian goddess" Atargatis so unexpectedly that some have looked in vain, I believe for irony in his respectful, even reverent exposition.Can Men And Women Have Platonic Relationships?
Note that Metamorphoses likewise departs in its hexameter medium from its author's earliest, elegiac poetry that makes Venus a celestial bawd. In the elegiacs of the Heroides she is more mythological, as one would expect, and is mentioned where one would expect for example, in Letter IV, Phaedra to Hippolytuswhereas her name is used only once there for sex" or love-making": Fasti is written in elegiac, too, but is late pre-exilic; internal evidence suggests that it was modified after AD 8 that is, after the completion of Metamorphoses.
Certainly in Ovid's poetry of exile Venus, when mentioned, is more soberly treated, as mother of the Imperial-dynastic ancestor Aeneas; only in Tristia II. The Venus of our poet's hexameter-epic magnum opus is no moralist; she is still a shameless adulteress herself, and delights in herself in the erotic-sensual sense.
There is nothing spiritual about her or anagogical. Nevertheless we may summarize what she stood for in Ovid's eyes when he composed Metamorphoses as what it may not be anachronistic to call romantic love in distinction both to dutiful matrimonium iustum, on the one hand, and Don Juan-like sexual predation on the other.
She has been recognized as an embodiment of male desire, 22 what Ovid may approve more readily than feminists do. Pace the glorification of the free market in recent years, this is largely a mythical animal. Companies should not be run in the interest of their owners. Not entirely, that is. Long-term success requires taking seriously everyone who contributes to a business: Most people in rich countries are paid more than they should be.
The washing machine has changed the world more than the Internet. Similarly, without the humble air conditioner, America would have no Sunbelt. Assume the worst about people and you will get the worst. Greater macroeconomic stability has not made the world economy more stable. Brutal anti-inflationary policies can easily do more damage than the inflation they combat.
Free-market policies rarely make poor countries rich. As I discussed in Chapter Six of my own book, every developed nation from England down to the present day got that way through protectionism and state industrial policy, not pure free markets.
Capital has a nationality. Money always belongs to somebody, and those somebodies have passports and home addresses. We do not live in a post-industrial age. The myth that we do has just led to the neglect of U. Much bad policy, both here and abroad, has been based on the idea that the American version of capitalism is observably superior.
But our per-hour average income ranks about 8th in the world on a purchasing-power parity read the book to find out what that is basis. Africa is not destined for underdevelopment.
In the s and s, they were making progress. Governments can pick winners. Not to mention the aircraft and semiconductor industries. In East Asia, governments did even more.