Lorentz-Lorenz relation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium
The derivation he presents of the "Lorentz- Lorenz relation" in deviates somewhat from his original version, though the final relation is the same. Abstract: The combination of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula with the Lorentz model of Lorenz formula can be simplified to a simple linear relationship between the mean molecular polarizability and The purpose of this paper is to establish an . In physics, the Lorentz-Lorenz relation is an equation between the index of refraction n and the density ρ of a dielectric (non-conducting matter).
Who Was Hendrik Lorentz? Unless you have studied physics in some amount of detail, you might not be immediately familiar with Hendrik Lorentz. However, it is Lorentz's research that helped define our modern interpretations and assumptions regarding electromagnetic theory by helping to unify the conclusions of earlier physicists, expanding upon the work of James Clerk Maxwell, Michael Faraday, and others.
Born in Arnhem, the Netherlands, inyoung Hendrik studied both physics and mathematics during his time at the University of Leyden and completed his bachelor's degrees in both fields in only one year. Since there were few professional jobs for physicists at the time, Lorentz initially taught night school after graduation. He would later earn his Ph. Hendrik was married to Aletta Kaiser, and the eldest of their three children, Geertruida Lorentz, would go on to become a physicist like her father.
Lorentz passed away in Hendrik Lorentz in his later years. Early Achievements Hendrik Lorentz was among the first to study the relationship between the speed of light traveling through a medium and the physical properties of that medium such as density and crystal structurealong with fellow physicist Ludvig Lorenz. The results of their collaboration are what we now refer to as the Lorenz-Lorentz formula. He also conducted research on the since disproven concept of a luminiferous ether, a theoretical substance with unusual properties that was believed to surround all matter and thereby would provide a medium through which electromagnetic waves like light could travel through.
This work was later expanded upon by the famous Michaelson-Morley experiment and also had implications for Einstein's work on relativity. Most texts from LorentzLarmor and Poincare are available on the web.
Unfortunately, they all make use of complex calculus related to Maxwell's equations. The problem is that very few people are capable of dealing with those electromagnetic concepts. For instance, authors of books on radio-electricity are well aware that experimental results are very often different from theoretical ones.
As a matter of fact, Lorentz himself wrote in that less than 20 physicists in the world had a fairly good knowledge of Relativity. And nowadays, it is even worse. The point is that Lorentz himself admitted that his equations were similar to Woldemar Voigt's ones, whose goal in was more simply to cancel the Doppler effect. I could check that those equations indeed produce this effect on sound waves, which definitely do not require Maxwell's equations.
This is easily verifiable because one just needs to deal with sine and cosine functions, the results being displayable on the computer screen. For example, you may check this program, which analyses the effects of four different frequency shifts press A, B, C or D on the Doppler effect using Voigt's revisited equations.
Clearly, this is all about the Doppler effect, which is a quite simple phenomenon. It surely doesn't require some complicated calculi involving Maxwell's equations.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz: Biography, Contributions & Atomic Theory
In short, the use of Maxwell's equations is a major and unnecessary obstacle. Frankly, it is best to stay away from them. Lorentz's contraction factor g and Poincare's beta normalized speed.
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I reiterate that the letter g will represent Lorentz's contraction factor, originally known as "the aberration". Its value is given by the reciprocal of the well known gamma factor, which should be avoided because its leads to some severe misunderstandings.
In addition, once again for the sake of simplicity, it is preferable to adopt Poincare's "beta" normalized speed, which is given by: Thanks to those elementary adjustments, the Lorentz transformations become much simpler. Two of them apply to space measures and two more apply to time measures.
This is the reversed and revisited version. If you still don't see the relationship with Lorentz's original equation set, the first move in order to retrieve them is to extract the x variable from the right side of the upper equation, like this: That is why x and x' must be swapped. However, swapping the t and t' variables proves to be incorrect.
There is no other way out: Voigt confused the t and t' variables. Lorentz and Poincare did not notice the error either because the t time is an arbitrary data which must be known before applying the transformations. Obviously, any arbitrary time seems to yield the correct values on paper.
The error indeed remains hidden using only one x coordinates because the symmetry works. However, it does become well visible on a computer screen as a distortion in the Doppler effect when the transformations involve thousands of pixels and coordinates. Below, x' is back on the left side and the equation is finally that of the original Lorentz transformations. It is equivalent to Poincare's equation, which rather uses the beta speed and the gamma factor. The Lorentz Transformations apply to waves as soon as motion is to be taken into account.
It has be seen that Voigt's version is useful in order to show on a computer screen how any kind of waves should experience the Doppler effect. The author of the computer program must be fully aware that the pixel coordinates are equivalent to those of a Cartesian system of coordinates, which is postulated to be stationary with respect to the wave medium.
There is no place here for a so-called Galilean frame of reference.
And I must add that the goal of the Lorentz transformations is not to "transform space and time", which is definitely absurd. No doubt, Lorentz was a great physicist. Considering that nobody ever demonstrated that the aether does not exist, it is rather deceiving that today's scientists consider this as a certainty.
Definitely, the Lorentz transformations should be examined and tested up to now, nobody did! Otherwise they should not be named after him. Unfortunately, Lorentz changed his mind later because he could not find any mechanical reason explaining matter contraction.
According to Poincare, this "strange property" looked very much like a "thumb snap", which in English may be translated more exactly as a "helpful hand" conveniently given by Nature in order to hide from us our absolute motion.
But fortunately, we did find two excellent reasons for this to happen. Firstly, Louis de Broglie discovered that matter exhibits wave properties. This is especially verifiable in observing the electron diffraction patterns. Yuri Ivanov discovered more recently that "lively standing waves" let's call them Ivanov's waves are undergoing a contraction.
That is why it appears very likely that moving matter must undergo a contraction. It is on longer a Deus ex machina, that is to say an unexpected and improbable event which has no logical counterpart and which conveniently intervenes in order to fix an otherwise unsolvable issue. Lorentz never totally abandoned the idea of an aether. He wrote in It is not necessary to give up entirely even the ether. In my opinion it is not impossible that in the future this road, indeed abandoned at present, will once more be followed with good results, if only because it can lead to the thinking out of new experimental tests.
Einstein's theory need not keep us from so doing; only the ideas about the ether must accord with it. Clearly, Lorentz had to postulate that the aether exists in order to elaborate his transformations.
Poincare also admitted that "this hypothesis is useful in order to explain those phenomena". Even afterEinstein himself did not totally reject it either. Hence, the idea that the aether does not exist should be considered as highly suspect, especially because the real nature and mechanism of electromagnetic fields are still totally unknown today. At all events, if you are still clinging to the idea that the aether does not exist, you are nevertheless invited to examine the simpler Alpha version of the Lorentz transformations below.
It refers to a phenomenon which was discovered by Mr. Yuri Ivanov in I found that it is reproducible using an equation set which I called the Alpha transformations because it is the very beginning of the New Mechanics, a new science created by Henri Poincare. This phenomenon is highly practical, physical, indeed undisputable. As a matter of fact, it is easily reproducible and verifiable because it also applies to sound waves, which do need a medium such as air in order to propagate.
And it will nevertheless lead us to Relativity. In this case, arguing that the gaseous fluid named "air" does not exist is definitely not an option!
The Lorentz transformations apply to three phenomena. I spent years of my life wondering what was the basic cause of the Lorentz transformations. Until recentlyI was quite sure that their purpose was merely to induce or neutralize the Doppler effect. However, I finally discovered that they apply differently to three separate phenomena: This is why the x and t variables are to be redefined according to each of them.
But surprisingly, the required equation set is the same for all three of them. This sheds some new light on the Lorentz transformations.
It also explains why Lorentz himself did not oppose a stronger resistance to Poincare's Relativity Postulate. Poincare indeed considered that optical phenomena were relative and that the aether was not so important in that context.
Thus, he severely modified Lorentz's absolute point of view much the same way Einstein did. At this point, I would like to point out that my Time Scanner does induce or neutralize the Doppler effect, hence exactly the same way Poincare's reversible equations do. This is no surprise because the scanning speed of this highly polyvalent device is that of the phase wave, which was discovered by Louis de Broglie.
The phase wave is a mere consequence of Lorentz's time equation, though. This strongly suggests that, even in the case of matter, we are dealing with a wave phenomenon. I would like to warmly express my thanks to Mr.
Sergi Blanchard, whose extended knowledge in astrophysics and mathematics were helpful in making things becoming clearer. This person has the flair of a true scientist. He is capable of detecting any suspicious reasoning and of finding his way through total blackness. Recently, his comments were very often the departure point of those new discoveries.
Far away from here, from his beloved Occitania, he watches with great interest my attempts to renew today's physics, which has become an incredible mess. Without him, this great adventure would have been significantly more laborious and much less fruitful Yuri Ivanov discovered a fundamental phenomenon which he called lively standing waves. It is a well known fact that two sets of identical plane waves traveling in opposite directions produce plane standing waves.
However, nobody had hitherto experimented what would happen if wavelengths were different. Ivanov experimented this phenomenon using speakers and microphones in the presence of wind.
He found that the characteristic node-antinode standing wave pattern was surprisingly moving, thus carrying the wave energy at the same speed.
In this page, this speed is called "alpha". Hence it is always inferior to the speed of light or sound. Ivanov discovered that the pattern was undergoing a contraction. And furthermore, Ivanov's waves also exhibit a phase wave, which was firstly described by Louis de Broglie. The phase wave speed is given by the reciprocal of the alpha speed: In this perspective, according to de Broglie, the speed of light is indeed given by the geometrical mean between the alpha speed de Broglie's "group" speed and the phase wave speed.
I hereby introduce Ivanov's Standing Waves: Ivanov's waves exhibit three remarkable properties. All this is fundamental. It is the very basis of the Lorentz transformations and it leads ultimately to Relativity. Moreover, because those waves are definitely not "standing" any more, they require a more appropriate name. That is why I suggest that they should be named "Ivanov's waves". Ivanov is clearly the discoverer, he also deserves it because he soon realized that he was in touch with something really important.
He calls it "rythmodynamics". He especially showed that, on the only condition that chemical bonds are performed by standing waves, matter and especially the Michelson interferometer must contract.
This phenomenon explains Michelson's null result. Unfortunately, Ivanov did not agree with Lorentz and Poincare, who had preferred a contraction according to g instead of g squared. He ended up with his own "Ivanov Transformations", which apply only to acoustic phenomena. Below are the Alpha Transformations, which are easily identifiable because of the use of the alpha speed.
Lorentz-Lorenz relation - Knowino
This equation set is similar to Lorentz's one but the variables must definitely be interpreted differently. Please check that this equation set is capable of reproducing Ivanov's waves. You may firstly examine this video: But it should henceforth more specifically be attributed to the speed of Ivanov's standing waves. The Lorentz contraction factor g linked to the alpha speed can easily be deduced from it: However, in this case, it may also be given by the arithmetic vs.
The y and z variables are useless here because we are dealing with plane waves only. Yet, they are still useful in order to reproduce the transverse "lively standing waves" shown farther below, which obey the same alpha transformations. What do the variables stand for? The Alpha transformations are basically Lorentz's ones, but their application differ significantly because the x and t variables refer neither to matter nor electromagnetic fields.
They more specifically refer to the geometric mean of Ivanov's interleaved wavelengths.
The resulting wavelength, which is arbitrary, is used as a reference. The Cartesian x variable stands for coordinates in such wavelength units. The t variable, in pulsation units, refers to the phase of an emitter which would produce the same arbitrary wavelength.
One may rather use the arithmetic mean, but this would require the use of g squared instead of g. Because a choice must be made, it appears preferable to resolutely cling to the geometric mean wavelength. Lorentz's contraction factor may be given by the arithmetic vs. The alpha speed may be deduced from the wavelength ratio R. In this case, all three transformations Alpha, Beta and Gamma become identical: Please note that the Alpha transformations apply to acoustic and optical waves as well.
After all, the goal is merely to check out what occurs when two wave trains whose wavelength differ are moving on two coincident paths. Starting from scratch, and accounting only for those two basic wavelengths, the conclusion nevertheless leads to Relativity. This is quite a giant step for such a little effort. But even though it is really not complicated, the scientific world had to wait until Ivanov's experiments in Ivanov ended up with his own transformations, which apply to acoustic phenomena only.
They are nonetheless useful because they reproduce the regular acoustic Doppler effect. The bad news is that Ivanov's transformations do not apply to the electron, whose frequency slows down according to g. For this reason, they do not apply to matter and hence, they cannot explain Relativity. Incidentally, aroundLorentz himself had made Ivanov's incorrect choice, which leads to a more severe axial contraction according to g squared and to a transverse contraction according to g.
Fortunately, byhe switched to the option which produces no transverse contraction. I made several videos showing some still unknown characteristics of Ivanov's waves. Ivanov's waves using the Delmotte-Marcotte virtual wave medium: Emitter A is stationary; emitter C speed is beta: