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Yeah, and so approaching it from a provider as well as a medical device perspective, you're capturing some pretty important groups here in this space and just thinking through some of the time savings.

I mean if you're reducing time by half I mean if you're an elderly patient with a lot of comorbidities and you really could benefit from less anesthesia than less time is better Jen. So I think you guys are doing some pretty awesome stuff and in the conversations that we've had on the Outcomes Rocket, just a resurfacing theme that in health care it's not new products that are innovative it's actually being able to implement them and to you and your partners success. So congratulations for putting this and being able to implement it because that's the challenge.

Yeah I agree with you and it's something that we are always still striving to improve. I think there are so many great ideas in healthcare and it's some, it's gotten harder and harder to get innovative technologies in the hospitals.

There's a split proliferation of new health curate key company which is so fantastic but I think it's been overwhelming for hospitals to know how do we process, how we manage us and say speak, A permanent governance put around this. So lots of decisions made by committee that can make it very difficult. And then I think also at the end of the day, you're putting in new products and in patient care setting and patients come first.

So you have to work really hard early on to capture the data that proves that your product is going to make patient care better or at minimum not interfere with that. And that takes a long time. So just congratulations right because half the battle is implementing and for those listening you've heard the episodes right.

I mean we as we talk to leaders that have had success in medicine like Jan it's so important that we start thinking about how we operationalize these technologies. So you guys have had success early on. Jen can you share a time when you guys had a setback and what you learned from that if you like we learn a lot more from those setbacks? Yeah I think one of our biggest setbacks was in our initial go to market.

So we launched the company out of the hospital out of their academic hospital and we're very focused on how do we grow our presence in more hospitals. And you know one of the things that we pride ourselves on was thinking about all the different stakeholders.

So knowing that you have these big committees that you need to get a approval through and that it really only takes one naysayer to shoot down a new product. We've spent a lot of time designing our product saying how is the surgeon going to interact with it. How is the scrub nurse going to interact with that. How with the OR manager is going to interface with this.

How with anesthesia team interface with that. And I think the critical portion that we left out early on was industry and all of the different vendors and I think a part of that was spending more of our time in specialties that had a lighter rep presence but a lot of people early on said you should talk to some of the device companies, you should talk to some of the capital equipment manufacturers.

And I initially said no you know I think we really want to be just focused on providers and we don't want to tie ourselves to any one type of company. And now we spend most of our time in the cardiac orthopedic and spine space, that was our all specialties where.

And the vendor in the room has a very important role and to be honest,we didn't think about that stakeholder enough early on that was a huge oversight on our organization side and over the last year when we started to work with a number of these companies directly, I think that has really accelerated our path to market and these organizations have been phenomenal customers and partners to us.

What a great story and a great learning that you guys pivoted from an in the business model has has been reshaped and impacting both the vice and and health care so I congratulate you guys for that. What would you say is one of your proudest medical leadership moments to date?

There have been so many amazing moments and they have all come from working directly with our customers. So having surgeons call us and talk about how the app prevented an issue from happening in surgery has been huge. And then you I think touching upon what we're doing now with device companies. One of our hesitations initially, I worked on the best price so how exactly is this going to work. Right if you look at the economics medallion proposition it's totally different with our first big medical device customer.

The CMO ended up writing us after we started working with our medical education team and sent us this note saying this is going to completely change the game of how we think about medical education and training for a novel products.

Nice, it's pretty awesome. It is really exciting and I think it was very validating very sad. That is the right way to enter these organizations and start working with them.

And that was a big inflection point for the company. So awesome that's on that one. And as you guys continue to make iterations work with different providers and device companies, what would you say today is one of your most exciting projects?

I can't talk about all of them publicly. One that is public is that we are working with Siemens health and ears as part of their digital ecosystem. We are one of their 5 inaugural partners. And so we have an API where we have a single sign on now with their digital ecosystem.

So for the new C-arms that have the screens embedded you can log right in and you can access this large surgical through that. And so we have been working with them. Our primary experience was personally Allar and then also in the cap lab and the key lab where doing work with Siemens interventional radiology on some of the more complex procedures like Titos.

So that has been pretty interesting and we've also seen working with their large customers that they're moving some complex orthopedic procedures into the IRS sleeve which as you can imagine is a huge change in the workflow when it comes out. Yeah mean our procedures generally can package most of what you need in a pretty small set and you have everything you need from there from the room right next door.

And now you're talking operating and big ortho trades and doing this very novel new procedures. That's been really exciting to see that's really kind of an emerging surgical specialty. And then also, now having our technology be so well integrated into a large player where you can just take down some of those barriers and getting started where it's ok we can log on on that we have our C-arm and its right there.

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So you power up the C-arm, it's right there on one of the screens and you got yourself oriented, you'd do a time out. And now everybody's on the same page. Yeah that's the vision for it. So you have a digital ecosystem. It would seem as it is going is very cool. I think that's exciting John and so there's definitely a lot that could be done to continue improving efficiencies in the OR and I'm thrilled that you and your team are just taking the bull by the horns to make this happen.

Yeah it's been a wild ride. So one that's been really exciting and also really meaningful. So Jen let's pretend you and I are building a medical leadership course on what it takes to be successful in operating room efficiency.

Today, it's the of Jennifer Fried. I've got four questions for you. We're going to put together a syllabus in the form of a lightning round. So four questions followed by what you think the best book for our listeners to read. What's the best way to improve health care outcomes? Start by capturing the rate data. What's the biggest mistake or pitfall to avoid?

How do you stay relevant as an organization despite constant change? Short sprint times so always having customer feedback they can incorporate it and then having an agile technology organization that can make those changes in short order. Powerful and what's one area of focus that should drive everything in the company? That's the name of the game in healthcare and we talk about it all the time as a company is as it is about designing our product.

We say if this was your kid that was on that table having surgery, what is the tool that you would want guiding that? What areas that you want for the team around it.

Beautiful and what book would you recommend to the listeners Jen? So a book that I read a year or two ago that I really like reckonings my health care friends is a thousand naked strangers. Has anybody brought this up yet on your podcast? So what does it, a A Thousand Naked Strangers?

I know people always talk about Gawande and his books are awesome and obviously very relevant to our organization. I thought I'd bring a new one. This is like I named named Kevin Hazzard. So this is a story that talks about his experience on the frontlines of that job and I found it so fascinating. You know I spent a lot of my time in the hospital but I personally didn't know as much about what happens for those first responders.

What is that experience like. And I just it was a really interesting read and I would encourage everybody in health care to go check it out. What a great recommendation. Listeners One Thousand Naked Strangers and listen all the things that we talked about today don't worry about writing them down, if your out for a run, if you're driving. Definitely don't write them down if you're driving. Unless you have a Tesla, oh accident it's still into it.

Jen it's been a ton of fun. Super exciting for what you and your team are doing if you can, just leave us with a best place where the listeners could get a hold of you or follow you. You can follow me on Twitter. Also find our website which is explorersurgical. There you have it listeners. Best place to get in touch. Best place to follow what the folks at explorer surgical are doing and Jen and her leadership team over there, just doing some amazing things so Jen just want to say thank you for spending time with us today and looking forward to staying in touch.

I will see you around the town for about a mile away. Looking forward to it. Thanks for tuning in to the outcomes rocket podcast if you want the show notes, inspiration, transcripts and everything that we talked about on this episode. PAGE 33 0 1. They also assist students in increasing that body of knowledge by teaching them how to develop new, important, and creative ways of understanding our world.

Being Innovative The concept of why learning is important changes over time. Even cultures within the same period may believe that education is important for different reasons. Chose two historical periods or two subcultures within the same period and try to determine: How each of these communities defined or regarded learning.

Are there distinctive images, metaphors, or com parisons that each group uses when it discusses education?

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What each of the communities regarded as the purpose of learning. What goals did they hope would result from education? PAGE 39 0 1.

How these views of learning and education help us understand each of the groups better. How do the two groups differ from one another? How are they similar to or different from our own views about learning?

What tools and resources would you need in order to conduct this study? Are there primary sources you would need to consul t? Is knowledge of one or more foreign languages beneficial for conducting research in this area? What sort of information would you use in order to justify your premises and conclusions?

Distinction Through Discovery : A Research-Oriented First Year Experience

Are other interpretations possible aside from the conclusions tha t you reach? For instance, like most businesses, colleges and universities are usually organized in a hierarchical manner: Power, authority, and responsibility tend to flow from the top down. In the case of most institutions of higher education, this means that presidents supervise vice presidents who supervise deans who supervise department chairs who supervise faculty members who supervise students.

This reporting structure tends to give colleges and universities a pyramidshaped or triangular organizational pattern. While authority and responsibility become greater as you move up the institutional ladder, the number of people at each level becomes greater as you move down.

In other words, there are more students than faculty members, more faculty members than department chairs, more chairs than deans, more deans than vice presidents, and more vice presidents than chief executive officers. Because this type of organizational chart is so common, your college or university probably isnt organized very differently from the last type of school you attended.

What makes this basic pattern more complicated, however, is that most colleges and universities also operate through shared governance. That is to say, many types of decisions are either delegated from upper levels in the hierarchy to lower levels or reached through a cooperative process that involves multiple parts of the institution PAGE 40 A"!

Student government associations, for instance, frequently have a great deal of autonomy in how they allocate the resources received from student activity fees, and the authority to develop and maintain the curriculum of the institution is usually assigned to the faculty, not the president or vice president.

Because it is impossible for directors to be equally knowledgeable about all aspects of their professions, they must frequently defer to the professional judgment of the people they supervise.

A traditional boss often has more advanced or specialized knowledge than the employees who work in that area. He or she may well have done the employees jobs before or taught them what to do and, as a supervisor, has the authority to overrule or countermand any decision an employee makes. Moreover, a second important difference also exists.

If the representative of the business does not meet all expectations, the customer will simply take his or her business elsewhere. If the client is too demanding, the professional may simply decide not to work with that client any longer and insist that the client have his or her needs addressed by someone else. Both these differences mean that decisions are made in contrasting ways in these two models. Consider the following scenarios. You are assisted in a clothing store by a salesperson who, for whatever reason, fails to help you adequately.

Perhaps you wish to compare a large number of brands, colors, and sizes before you make your decision, and the salesperson becomes annoyed at how much time you re taking. If you feel that the treatment youve received has been rude or inappropriate, you can PAGE 41 0 1.

Several different solutions to your problem might be offered. The supervisor may simply instruct the salesperson to do what you ask. You may be directed to a different salesperson who can then meet your needs. The supervisor may help you directly.

And, if the problem seems bad enough, the store manager may even fire the original salesperson on the spot. But the situation will be quite different if, instead of being a customer in a store, you are a patient in a hospital.

If your doctor gives you a diagnosis you dont agree with, its not helpful to go to the chief surgeon or a hospital administrator and complain about the diagnosis. Both of these people, even if they supervise the doctor in question, are likely to tell you that they defer to the professional judgment of their staff and thus support their decisions.

In other words, an administrator in a professional setting is highly unlikely to take any of the actions that may have resulted in the clothing store. No supervisor will ever order a doctor to reconsider his or her diagnosis, automatically assi gn you to a different doctor, perform the diagnosis himself or herself, or fire your original doctor. You are free, of course, to seek a second opinion on your own, but your doctors supervisor wont pursue this option for you.

Colleges and universities work in the same way. A supervisor such as a department chair, dean, or the president is highly unlikely to second-guess the amount of work a professor requires of you, the teaching techniques adopted by a faculty member in a particular course, or the textbooks and activities you are assigned.

If you or your parents complain about an issue of this kind to one of your professors supervisors, the response you receive is likely to be very similar to what will happen in the hospital setting considered above: You may receive sympathy and understanding, but the faculty members boss will not second guess a professors judgment.

The organization of a college or university simply doesnt work that way. If the way in which colleges and universities are structured means that most issues cant be resolved with the same strategies you might adopt in the retail or corporate world, how can you have your questions or your needs addressed in an institution of higher education? In order to answer this question, it is important to begin with an understanding of how colleges and universities are structured.

Equipped with this knowledge, youll be in a much better position to know whom and how to ask for an issue to be addressed or a problem be solved.

Although it can sometimes be difficult to believe, colleges and universities dont intentionally make it difficult for people to get the information they need. Sometimes, however, the people who work in higher education assume that their organizational structure is obvious to everyone simply because its a part of their own daily lives.

They forget that most students only go to college once and are unlikely to arrive knowing the difference between a provost and a bursar or that issues addressed by the Office of Financial Aid at one school are handled by the Business Office at another. Key Principle Questions at a college or university should always be handled at the lowest institutional level that deals with those issues.

For instance, it is never approp riate to take an academic matter directly to the president, vice president, or dean unless it has already been thoroughly discussed with the faculty member and then with his or her department chair. Going all the way to the top is counterproductive in an academic setting and can cause you unnecessary delays in having your problem addressed. To make it easier to understand who does what in a typical college environment, here is a simplified guide to the levels found in most institutions of higher educati on.

PAGE 43 0 1. Vice presidents are in charge of the institutions major divisions, such as Enrollment Management, Business and Finance, and Student Affairs.

The Vice President for Academic Affairs, who supervises the deans of the v arious colleges that make up the university or the schools that make up the college, is often known as the provost. The precise responsibilities of different offices and a more complete discussion of how colleges and universities are structured may be fou nd in Appendix B.

Being Analytical Suppose that, in the course of your reading for a class, you came across the following statement: Does this statement corroborate the concepts that we ve discussed in this unit, contradict them, or not really relate to them at all? How would you go about analyzing whether the authors statement is true or just a matter of the writers opinion?

What factors might you need to take into account if you wish to determine whether the structure of the college or university you attend is more similar to or more different from that of other institutions. How would you go about obtaining a list of institutions that would provide a reasonable comparison?

Which factors would you consider such as number of students enrolled, size of the faculty and staff, public versus private funding, institutional mission, location, and so on as you c ompare schools? Which elements of institutional structure would you want to examine in this type of study? The number of deans or academic departments? The responsibilities of vice presidential divisions? The size and mission of the governing board?

How appeals are handled for different types of decisions? What would be a suitable hypothesis or premise for your study? If youre unclear about what constitutes a hypothesis or a premise, look ahead to Unit Three.

In other words, what specifically would you set out to determine? What would you regard as appropriate evidence in support of a hypothesis or premise? Would you use statistical analysis? Would you compare organizational charts? Would you interview people at the institutions? If you discover that your institution is significantly different from others in specific ways, how might you determine how those differences arose?

It doesnt matter how good a student you are. It doesnt even matter if youre the sort of student for whom everything has always come PAGE 45 0 1. We all face periods, at least occasionally, when we feel a bit puzzled, in over our heads, or challenged in a way that goes beyond our comfort level. It may be that youre taking an advanced course in an area that has proven difficult for you in the past.

It may be that a particular professors method of explaining material or organizing the course is different from the way in which you believe you learn best. It may be that youve reached a level in your major where theres simply a vast amount of material or where the concepts you encounter are far more difficult than what came before. It may be that youre a non-traditional student who was always successful at school before but now faces a number of challenges because youve been away from the classroom for a while.

Any one of these factors can create added difficulties for you in your academic work. But other parts of our lives can also interfere with our academic success from time to time.

You may be going through a period when your various commitments to your family, to campus organizations, to your job, or to anything else that requires a significant amount of your time seem to take priority over your schoolwork. Or you may be facing a traumatic or stressful time that makes it more difficult for you to focus on your courses. Whatever the reason may be, it s possible to overcome these obstacles and to achieve distinction in your academic work.

As weve already seen, success in college and life doesnt come from our ability to develop excuses like Im just not good at this subject. When people think thoughts like that, what theyre actually doing is giving themselves permission not to be successful.

But, as weve seen, theres one truth that every undergraduate student should realize: If youre a good, well-prepared college student, you can succeed in any college level course, even if its not in your major even if its in a subject that you just dont get. There are always ways of turning challenges into opportunities, particularly if you remember this important idea. Key Principle You dont have to be the best at something to excel at something.

You may not always be able to get the highest grade on a paper or assignment, but you can still get superb grades. And being successful in all your work is a goal you can achieve, even when everything else in your life seems challenging. The key to success in your courses, as well as in many other aspects of your life, is to remember that you have resources available to you and to use those resources whenever you need them.

Here are just a few of the resources you have available to you as a college student. Enrichment materials associated with your textbooks. Both the field of higher education and the industry of textbook publishing have a great deal of experience in how to increase a students chance at learning material effectively in any discipline. Many textbooks provide supplementary material, such as websites for students, CD ROMs with additional information and exercises, and a full range of enhancements designed for every type of learning preference see Unit Twolevel of ability, and institutional focus.

One easy way to secure additional help, therefore, is to visit the website of the company that publishes your textbook, find the sec tion dedicated to the book youre using, and discover whether there are any supplementary materials available. If this approach doesnt work, perform an Internet search, using the authors last name, keywords from the title of the book, and an expression like student resources.

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Particularly in disciplines such as foreign languages, mathematics, and the natural sciences, you are likely to find websites that other teachers originally designed for their own students but that are now available to any student who needs extra help. These review sites may include clear outlines of textbook materials, supplementary illustrations, rephrased definitions of key terms and concepts, and suggestions for further help.

In math and science disciplines, additional problem sets with solutions may be found online, as well as automated vocabulary reviews keyed to specific textbooks.

Distinction Through Discovery : A Research-Oriented First Year Experience

Finally, several academic disciplines provide resources that can help you in difficult courses. For instance, the American Psychological Association devotes a section of its website exclusively to the needs of students in psychology courses.

So, if you discover that a textbook and class PAGE 47 0 1. A little creative searching may uncover all the help you need. The learning resource center on your campus Most colleges and universities have a centralized location where students may go for additional help or access t o supplementary materials in their coursework. Often called a Learning Resources Center, Study Skills Center, or Academic Assistance Center, the function of this office is to provide tutorial services, assess and address learning disorders, offer mini -courses that can enhance academic performance, and advise students on the best sequence of courses to meet their academic abilities and greatest challenges.

Many times these centers will offer ancillary sections paired with the very courses that students fin d difficult. This type of supplemental instruction offers strategies for learning the course material more effectively and systematically.

Learning resource centers can also assist students with improving their general techniques for academic success. They may offer time management seminars, workshops on the best way to take notes, tips on studying for exams, and advice on reducing stress.

For instance, there may be a writing center, math lab, or public speaking forum. Individual resource centers are less common in foreign languages although they may be paired with a campus language labengineering, the natural or social sciences, and the fine or performing arts, but support groups or mini-courses to help you with these areas are sometimes available.

When seeking help from a learning resource center, its often useful to state your needs in a rather general fashion, allowing the staff to assess your situation and assign the best resources. For instance, if you go to a learning resource center and say, I need a tutor in some particular academic subject, you are likely to receive one, even if supplemental instruction on learning strategies, an examination for learning disabilities, or a group study review section would better serve your needs.

Although learning resource centers can be invaluable in helping you overcome course challenges, some students make faster progress with private tutors. While you will probably need to pay private tutors for their services, the cost is likely to be worthwhile if the alternative is increased frustration or a poor grade in a course. Many private tutors are either upper-level majors or graduate students in the discipline they help teach. The advantage of hiring a private tutor is that this person will be much freer to focus on your individual academic needs than are the tutors who are provided by the institution, more flexible in the times they are availab le, and readily accessible by phone, instant messaging, or email.

Indeed, you can think of the fees charged by the tutor as the price you pay to obtain a high degree of flexibility and access.

Before agreeing to a long-term contract with a private tutor, you may wish to meet with that person for one or two trial sessions. Certain students who are excellent in one discipline find it difficult to comprehend how someone else can t understand concepts that are so obvious and simple. As a result, they may be ineffective at understanding the troubles youre having. They may find it challenging to present material from a different perspective so that youll understand it better.

In other words, if youre going to pay extra for help from a fellow student, youll want to find someone with whom you have a good rapport, who recognizes that people learn differently, and who is able to work within your schedule. If you can find a tutor wh o PAGE 49 0 1. Another service that learning resource centers may provide is assistance in forming study and support groups for certain academic areas or even individual courses.

Nevertheless, just as a private tutor is sometimes preferable to an institutionally assigned tutor, sometimes your own study group is better than one created by someone else. In your own study group, you along with a like-minded group of fellow students can best decide how your time is allocated, how often to meet, and which external resources to contact.

You may prefer a study group that devotes all of its time to working on problem sets rather than reviewing basic concepts or vice versa, you may be frustrated because other students in an official study group need to review substantial amounts of material youve already mastered, or you may find you prefer a more extended review but other students arent particularly interested. A study group that you organize yourself can target your ind ividual needs and those of other students who are like you.

For this reason, if you discover that study groups organized by your instructor or your schools learning resource center are not meeting your needs, be entrepreneurial and develop your own. The instructor of the course.

The single best resource you have available to you when you are having trouble in a course is the person teaching that class. If your course has a designated teaching assistant, start by meeting with that person and have a calm, constructive conversation about the difficulties youre facing. If no teaching assistant has been identified, learn the instructors office hours, make an appointment if necessary, and be ready to state clearly and concisely what aspect of the course material is causing you problems.

When meeting with an instructor, its often useful to reverse the strategy you would adopt when seeking help at a learning resources center. We saw that, when visiting one of these centers, you should state your needs in a s general a manner as possible in order that the staff can best match the programs available to your individual situation.

Was there a point in the course at which you felt that your challenges really began? Are there certain types of problems or exercises that are easier for you in the course, while others cause you to struggle? Are you unclear as to when a particular principle is applied and when it is not relevant to an issue?

If the instructor has a lot of students stopping by for help, it may serve as an alert that certain issues need to be clarified for the class as a whole or that the pace o f the course should be reconsidered. In other words, your questions may not only be helping you; they may also be helping your fellow students and allowing the instructor to improve the course as a whole.

While it is true that certain professors can seem quite remote or intimidating, dont allow their personal style to prevent you from seeking the help you need.

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Most professors are happy to help students in their courses, as long as those students don t come to see them only when its too late, and the students are hoping to be bailed out. Its not an admission of failure or ignorance to ask for help. That s what your professors are there for. A doctor doesnt think less of you for getting sick, and a professor wont look down on you if you have a question. Many students get into trouble because they wait too long to act when they are having problems in a course, thinking Ill figure this out eventually.

Many college courses particularly in math, science, logic, music, and foreign languages build exponentially: You need to have mastered material covered in an earlier chapter in order to make any sense at all of the concepts that are developed in a later chapter.

If you wait too long, youll be so far behind for the help you need that it wont make a real difference in your performance. Remember, too, that it takes a surprising number of very high grades in a course to make up for even one low grade. For instance, suppose a student receives a zero on an assignment where all the work in that course carries equal PAGE 51 0 1. Depending on where the instructors cut-off point for each grade may be, it can take three or more perfect scores to bring that students average even up to a C, six or more perfect scores to restore the students average to a B, and as many as fourteen perfect scores to restore the students chance of earning an A.

If that doesnt sound particularly difficult, consider how unlikely it is for someone to complete even one assignment perfectly after having failed earlier work. Or consider, too, how impossible this goal would become if the failing grade were on a quiz or exam that counted for a large percentage of the students final grade. Many college courses dont have six or more full quizzes or exams. In those cases, even one low grade can put an A or B out of reach for the entire course. So, its inadvisable to wait until you actually receive a low grade before asking for the help you need.

Apply your best critical and creative problem-solving strategies before the poor grades arrive, not after. If a doctor prescribes you medicine and an exercise program, he or she is not likely to be sympathetic to you if you show up weeks later not having taken your medicine or performed your exercises but still expecting your health to improve.

In your academic work, always make an effort to learn the material yourself and demonstrate to the professor the steps youve already taken to overcome your own difficulties. Some students believe, however, that their responsibilities to their families or jobs are so important that they should take precedence over their academic work. One of the ideas that well deal with extensively in Unit Seven is Key Principle Every decision has consequences. Placing other aspects of your life as higher priorities than your academic performance may well be your own decision, but you shouldnt then expect your instructors to ignore the consequences.

Its never a good strategy to enter a conversation with a professor in an accusatorial manner, implying that either you or your fellow students are not succeeding because of deficiencies in the teachers performance or level of knowledge.

Consider how you feel when someone asks you for help: Its only natural for people to feel more disposed to help someone when they havent received the impression that its their own failure or incompetence which has led to the other persons need for assistance.

Moreover, the instructors commitment to other students means that he or she can only allocate a certain amount of time to the problems you are having. The instructor is highly unlikely to spend his or her office hours re-explaining everything thats been covered in the course, compensating for material that should have been mastered in one of the courses prerequisites, or supervising you as you do your homework.

Youre much more likely to receive the help you need if you come to an instructor with a positive attitude and a few specific questions that help identify your specific challenges. At the end of your conversation, be gracious and thank the instructor for his or her time and help. You may be correct in thinking, But its this persons job to assist me; even so, an extra amount of politeness and civility is likely to cause that teacher to go beyond the minimum requirements of his or her job in an effort to be of assistance to you.

It may even be the case that, if your final score in the course ends up on the borderline between two grades, your demeanor during the conversations will lead the instructor to give you the benefit of the doubt because you were willing to take responsibility for seeking help. At the other extreme, a negative or hostile attitude cou ld work against you, leaving the impression that you have a sense of entitlement to a good grade and are unwilling to take the suggestions you are offered.

PAGE 53 0 1. Whether the subject the student is studying falls within that student s academic major. The grade the student receives on the quiz or exam for whic h the student is studying.

The overall grade the student receives in the course. The students cumulative grade point average. Whether the course is taught at an introductory, intermediate, or advanced level. Before you even begin to collect data, try to e nvision what you are likely to discover. What patterns do you expect might emerge as a result of this study? Could the results help improve the way in which you and your fellow students study for a course?

What issues of privacy and other ethical concer ns would you need to address in order to conduct this study? What policies does your institution have in place regarding research involving human subjects? What quantitative or qualitative methods would you use when performing this research? Being Intentional Youre more likely to gain from any research project or life experience by giving some thought in advance to what you hope to accomplish.

Being Reflective Once a research activity or life experience is over, its useful not to rush immediately onto the next one. Pausing for a moment to think What did I learn from this activity?

Being Innovative In order to move knowledge forward, its important not merely to learn whats already been known by others but also to learn things that no one has known before. Each academic discipline requires a certain amount of ingenuity, creativity, and innovation in order for people to be successful. By being innovative, youll also develop new hypotheses, premises, and questions that you can consider when you re being intentional.

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In short, youll be doing genuine research. Heres how the Council on Undergraduate Research, the worlds premier organization devoted to college-level scholarship, defines what youll be doing.

Each unit of this textbook will provide you with opportunities to apply all five of these essential tools. In fact, youve already had an opportunity to work with four of them, so lets close this unit by spending a bit of time on the fifth. Being Reflective As you consider what youve read in this unit, think about: What were the three most important ideas that were explored?

Did any of the principles discussed in this unit surprise you? Which point or idea did you find yourself disagreeing with the most? Which concepts or principles made you feel, Oh, I know all that already? Compare your philosophy of learning with the statements prepared by several other students. What common themes can you trace among two or more statements? How does each persons statement suggest that he or she is unique in some way?

Come to class next time prepared to answer the following questions. Where would you go at your college or university if you: Identify someone who works at the college or university that you attend, and ask for a fiveor ten-minute interview to get to know that person better. If possible, this person should not be one of your current professors or anyone you already know particularly well. How long has the person worked at the school? Why did the person enter his or her current career?

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Has the person ever worked somewhere else? What does the person believe is the best thing about the school? What does the person think is the greatest challenge at the school?

What advice would this person give a new student? What goals does the person have in his or her professional life? As candidly as possible, complete the following sentence: The reason why I am attending this school is because 5.

Can you think of other examples? Identify a question or problem for which you believe there is no one correct answer or solution. Dont settle for simple examples, such as mathematical problems for which there are two or three correct answers. If you were then required to do so, how would you begin to address your question or problem?

In a single sentence, identify a clear warning sign or red flag that would suggest you are having trouble in a course. Is it when you a. PAGE 57 0 1. If you find that you have identified different warning si gns in different subjects such as an Aon an assignment in one discipline, but a D on a test in another explain why you feel differently about different courses or subjects. Choose a textbook for one of the courses youre currently taking.

Explore on the Internet whether there are additional resources, such as a publisher s website or material made available by an instructor at another institution, that provide a supplement or additional help. The governor of Florida, Rick Scott, had the following to say about the purpose of a college education.

Scott said Monday that he hopes to shift more funding to science, technology, engineering and math departments, the so-called STEM disciplines.