RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY. AND VIDEO GAME PREFERENCES. A Thesis. Presented to the faculty of the Department of Psychology. California. do people turn to various types of computer games? In this study relationship between gaming gratifications and genre preferences using a. The relationship between computer games and quality of life in .. Video game culture: Leisure and play preferences of B. C. teens [Online].
Many studies conducted in social science fields such as psychology report that girls and young women display less interest in digital games, have less game-related knowledge, and play less frequently and for shorter durations than do boys and young men e. Several recent studies in Germany suggest the existence of a similar or even wider gender gap in video game involvement among the German population.
At the same time, recent publications suggest that the amount of female game playing has increased, at least in the U. According to current user data for the U.
In sum, the research suggests that video games have traditionally been a realm dominated by males, but that due to the emergence of female subcultures adopting contemporary video games designed for males, and the advent of new games that successfully engage female players, the gender gap has started to narrow, at least in the U.
These developments imply a shift away from the traditional gender gap to gender-specific adaptations of video games. Focusing on gender differences in involvement with computer games is primarily relevant for research on entertainment e. However, despite growing interest among scholars from different disciplines in what video game design elements attract females, few empirical studies have examined the issue from a psychological point of view.
Continued research on the gender gap that still exists also has implications for research on media socialization and access to information technologies. It follows that if computer games are more attractive to boys than to girls, they perpetuate gender imbalance in access to modern information technologies. This article presents two studies that address why young women are less attracted than young men to popular contemporary computer games in Germany. Both studies rely on assumptions discussed in the literature in social-scientific communication research and psychology.
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Both studies analyzed single-player video games thus excluding virtual worlds and other multiplayer games. Also, other playing contexts and situational factors e. Throughout this article we adopt a psychological perspective, namely the Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Differentiation, which is described by Bussey and Bandura as follows: Most attempts to explain the gender gap in computer game involvement focus on the content and the design of typical games e.
Many female characters in computer games are weak victims who are protected or rescued by powerful males i.
Moreover, visual portrayals of females tend to highlight physical attributes e. Although such content characteristics presumably attract male players, they may repel females from playing, because observing such gender stereotypes could impede identification with the female characters or even cause cognitive conflicts and annoyance especially if the subjective construction by the player involves a feminist self-concept; see, e. Another important content variable is violence.
Research on media genre preference has demonstrated that males are more interested in violent entertainment than females are e. Television research has revealed that females value programs with considerable amounts of meaningful dialogue and character interaction, and are less attracted by action-oriented formats with taciturn people who ignore each other e.
Most single-player computer games, however, seem to adopt structures of action-oriented entertainment formats such as action movies or sports broadcasts, and only include social interaction to a limited extent.Can Video Games Make You Smarter?
Therefore, this study sought to identify the relationship between computer games and quality of life. According to the results of this study, some training programs were designed for the target group and their parents hoping for taking a small step towards improving the quality of life of this group.
The total number of girls was from 18 mid-schools and 14 high schools and that of boys was from 18 mid-schools and 12 high schools. The sampling method of the study was two-stage stratified cluster sampling in proportion with the sample size. After random selection of schools, the first, second and third grades in mid-school and the first grade in high school were selected as the units of study. A Personal information questionnaire: This brief form included four domains of physical health questions with sevenitems for example, how much do you move around?
The first two questions did not belong to any of the domains and evaluated general health and quality of life. The questions were evaluated through five-level Likert scale.
The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were examined by Nejat et al. Then, the height and weight of students were measured to obtain body mass index BMI. From among the completed questionnaires, questionnaires were qualified to be included in the study and were analyzed.
For data analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests, chi-square, independent t-testand covariance analysis were used.
The relationship between computer games and quality of life in adolescents
RESULTS The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between computer games and quality of life of adolescents aged years old in city of Borkhar in The age mean of participants was From among participants of the study, The majority of studied population The results of BMI showed that students Also, the results demonstrated no significant relationship between BMI, type of computer games and duration of playing per day.
The majority of participants The mean age of starting to play computer games was 9. The average hours spent on playing computer games was 1. Aggressive games ranked first among the studied people The majority of students in this study Table 1 shows the mean and standard deviation of the overall quality of life score and its four domains and playing or not playing computer games.
As shown in the table, the mean of overall quality of life score in the first group those who played computer games was Table 1 Open in a separate window The means of physical health, social relations, mental health and environmental health in two groups are mentioned in Table 1. However, the mean of social relation domain and physical health domain showed no significant difference between the students who played and those who did not play computer games.
It should be mentioned that those who did not play games gained a lower score in physical health domain, but the difference of their scores with those of students who did not play was not significant. By controlling the economy status index income, facilities, and father's jobno significant relationship was found between playing computer games and overall quality of life score and its four domains.
The lowest mean of overall quality of life score was among those who played mind games and the highest score was related to those who played action games. The means of other domains physical health, social relations, mental health and environmental health are given in Table 2. The ANOVA test revealed no significant relationship between type of computer games and overall quality of life score and its four domains. However, those who played action games gained higher overall quality of life, physical health, social relations and environmental health scores.
Table 3 shows the relationship between the starting age of playing computer games and the overall quality of life score and its four domains.
The Pearson correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between the starting age and the overall quality of life score and its four domains. Accordingly, some educational programs can be designed for this group and their parents in order to take a step in improving their quality of life. The results of this study clearly showed that boys play computer games more than girls. This finding was in line with that of Marny and Gentile and Amini et al.
Other results of this investigation showed that boys were more interested in aggressive games than girls, which was in parallel with the results of some other studies. The findings showed that the prevalence of playing computer games was In the present study, mean of overall quality of life score was The mean of mental health and environmental health scores in those who played computer games were significantly higher than those who did not play games.
It should be noted that, after controlling the confounding variables, no significant relationship was found between these variables. In physical health domain and social relations domain, there was no significant difference between the two groups; in fact, those who played computer games had more physical health.
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The results of Mohtasham et al. For example, a study shows that playing computer games has no effect on social skills which is not in line with the findings of this study. Since the role of social relations in mental health is clear for the experts, these people will gain a higher score in mental health. The reason for this is their more interaction with others since they compete with their friends in having newer games. In this study, there was a significant reverse relationship between the starting age and mental health but in Allahverdipoor et al.
It should be noted that, in this study, with the control in the level of income and facilities, this relationship was not significant. In the present study, those who played action games had a higher overall quality of life score and environmental health score. Those who played mind games gained higher mental score and those who did not play at all had lower physical health score. This study was the result of a M. In previous researches, the effectiveness of one domain of quality of life on other domains was investigated; however, this study examined the four domains together and along with overall quality of life score.
This study indicated the field for doing intervention in other studies. It focused on the age group of years old.
It is recommended that further studies be done on other age groups, among children and adolescents. The results of this study were based on a self-report tool and future studies can be based on more accurate methods of study.
The present study was a cross-sectional one, so others can conduct longitudinal studies. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Can the Mario Bros.